“For the last 400 years science has advanced by reductionism... The idea is that you could understand the world, all of nature, by examining smaller and smaller pieces of it. When assembled, the small pieces would explain the whole” (John Holland).
COMPILATION OF NEW DATA IN PHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION IN SUPPORT OF THE THEORY OF ABIOGENESIS.
By Biologist Nasif Nahle
Council Leadership/Researcher Biology Cabinet Org., New Braunfels, Tx.
CONFERENCE PRESENTED BY BIOLOGIST NASIF NAHLE AT MONTERREY, N. L., MEXICO, ON FEBRUARY 27, 2004, AT THE AUDITORIUM OF THE LIBRARY "FRAY SERVANDO TERESA DE MIER". Theory published on November 14, 2002.
Abiogenesis means "origin by abiotic processes ". The concept refers to the "generation of living beings that start as inert systems, by means of inorganic autocatalytic processes".
At present, this abiotic process no longer happens on Earth. We have not observed the emergency of living beings from inert materials. Currently, we use the term to describe the emergency of living beings on any planet of the Universe where they exist. At this moment in time, since we have not discovered living beings on other worlds, we only can describe the process of emergency of living beings on our planet.
Through a long time the term was applied to describe the "spontaneous generation" of living beings. Ever since Spallanzani, Louis Pasteur and other scientists demonstrated that the spontaneous generation do not happen on our planet, the term adjusted exclusively to the description about the emergency of living beings on our planet.
Abiogenesis is a description of the emergency of living beings on Earth.
In order to understand the Abiogenesis we need to resort to diverse disciplines, for example, Physics, Biochemistry, Cosmology and Methodology of Sciences. It is this last one which leads us to the necessity to use the Reductionist Theory as the main tool to obtain a valid semantic conclusion on the concept "life".
The Reductionist Theory establishes that everything in nature circumstantially can be described by verifiable scientific terms; essentially, that there are no unknown natural facts.
From the standpoint of the REDUCTIONISM, each phenomenon can be condensed into scientific explanations and everything can be explained by means of the interactions of a small number of simple things under the Fundamental Physical Laws (such as matter and energy).
We Biologists can make use of the laws that rule the microscopic world to obtain an explanation of all biological phenomena, especially to give unquestionable explanations about the origin of living beings on Earth.
Entropy is a quantification of the number of microstates of a system towards which the energy can be spread or dispersed spontaneously. To a greater number of available microstates for a given system, the greater would be the change of its local entropy.
This definition of Entropy includes the concept of microstates of a thermodynamic system, of such form that we could say that the energy can be arranged in diverse microstates, that is to say, it can assume diverse positions and momentums, so and as it can be observed directly in the nature.
Then, Entropy is the amount of potential microstates towards which the energy can spread or disperse. The total interchange of entropy can never be negative. To be precise, the global entropy of the known Universe never diminishes.
DEFINITION OF LIFE
We do not have a direct definition of life, but from direct and indirect observations of the thermal state of the living structures, we can say that:
Life is a delay of the spontaneous diffusion or dispersion of the internal energy of the biomolecules towards more potential microstates.
The Energy (to be precise the energy contained by a particle) is proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation to which that particle corresponds.
The formula to obtain the value of the Energy in a biosystem is E=h x f, where E is the energy of the photon, h is the Planck’s constant (6.626 x 10-34 J.s) and f is the frequency of vibration of the radiant energy.
It is possible that the intensity of light emitted by a primal Sun stirred up to a first biosystem to experience a change from a state of low energy density to another state with a higher energy density without passing by the transitional states. It could be an event that occurred through a mechanism similar to the absorption of electromagnetic energy by the water molecules of our bodies. To absorb energy, the molecules of water should vibrate at a frequency similar to the frequency of vibration of the photons of the electromagnetic energy that would be absorbed. This is known like Absorption by Resonance.
Perhaps, the whole Solar System was synchronized at a frequency of vibration that would be normalized by an intermittent intensity and density of the electromagnetic energy emitted by an "embryonic" Sun and with the influence of the gravitational force.
It is realistic to deduce that the life's instant was promoted by the interaction of the Intergalactic Cosmic Energy, the oscillation in the density and the intensity of the energy emitted by the Sun, the correlation in the frequency of vibration of photons and molecules (resonance) and the gravitational waves with protobionts.
Sorry to say that I do not know the frequency of vibration of protobionts' molecules. It could be the same frequency of vibration of the chlorophyll molecules. If my hypothesis is demonstrated as true by experimentation, the conclusions will be extraordinary and productive.
The exact amount of movement of the energy, associated with its location in a given space-time, is denominated a microstate of the energetic molecules (or thermodynamic systems) and derives from the Biotic Field, that is, from the amount of energy assigned for the space in which an interaction of charged particles promoted by photons happens to generate the Proton Motive Force, which is the physical expression, detectable and quantifiable, of life. These interactions between charged particles through photons happen at any electrodynamic field.
OBSERVABLE PHENOMENA AND ANTECEDENTS
In the edition of Science Express on line, from the issue of Science of September 28, 2006, Pierre-Olivier Lagage and colleagues reported the discovery of large quantities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the nebula of the incipient Star HD97048. This finding confirms my theory about the spontaneous synthesis of biomolecules in grains of dust of the planetary nebulas, not in the deposits of water on the planets. Another finding that supports my theory is that the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons were excited by the action of the ultraviolet radiation emitted by the young star. (I have added this paragraph on October 3, 2006).
1. In 1999, some astronomers discovered the planet HD 209458b, in orbit around a star in the constellation of Pegasus, at 150 light years from Earth. The planet like-Jupiter is orbiting in three and one half days, facing a sufficiently nearby and brilliant star as to be well observed. Using an ultraviolet spectrograph attached to the Hubble Space Telescope, Alfred Vidal Madjar of the Institute of Astrophysics of Paris and Gilda Ballester of the University of Arizona studied the planet in October and November of 2003, finding atomic Oxygen and Carbon in the outer layers of the planet.
2. Jan M. Hollis of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have written a paper where they reported the finding of glycol-aldehyde in a large nebula near to the center of the Milky Way. Their finding is the first discovery of a simple molecule of carbohydrates out from Earth, at the Interstellar Medium, with which my theory about the synthesis of biomolecules in the Interstellar Medium has been verified.
3. Raymond and Beverly Sackler of the Laboratory for the Astrophysics in the Observatory of Leiden have discovered that the Amino acids can synthesize by reactions of gas phase in interstellar clouds by reactions in solid grains of dust, or by aqueous alteration in carbonaceous meteorites. This discovery supports my theory that the intense UV light emitted by the Sun had impeded the formation of amino acids in the interplanetary environment if there were not frozen crystals and solid fractals.
4. Perry A. Gerakines, Marla H. Moore and Reggie L. Hudson of the Department of Physics of the University of Alabama have shown experimentally the formation of organic molecules from “icy” mixtures (T20-100 K) due to irradiation (protons of 0.8 MeV) and photolysis (6-10 eV). This experiment supports my theory that the biomolecules were synthesized in the central region of the planetary cloud, which contained frozen crystals of water and solid dust.
KEYS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM:
There is an enormous wealth of knowledge in the satellites of giant planets, for example, in Titan, Phoebe and Europe. Studying the characteristics of the natural satellites of giant planets, we can understand how our solar system originated and the origin of the living beings on Earth.
Titan and Phoebe are natural satellites of Saturn. The atmosphere of Titan contains Ammonia, Acetylene and Ethane. The mission Cassini-Huygens has shown that Titan has water ice and Methane. Phoebe contains water ice, minerals and carbon dioxide. This is a clear demonstration that wandering comets did not bring all the fundamental components to the primitive Earth but that the fundamental compounds were produced in the solar nebula. After their synthesis, those compounds were retained by the gravity field of each world. We know that comets could have contributed a little in the formation of planets, but just ask: how many comets had been necessary to form the soils and the atmospheres of all planets, asteroids, planetoids and satellites of our solar system? It would not be easier to infer that the comets -as well as all the bodies of the Solar System- still conserve the ingredients of that primitive Solar Nebula?
As we discover more objects in and out our Solar System that were formed with the same materials than Earth, we gather more facts in support of the theory about the origin of protobionts in the Terrestrial atmosphere. This last event was possible by the presence of icy water in frozen fractals, which melted inside a center of a cloud heated by atmospheric chemical reactions and the collisions between particles. Through it, even comets could contain water and organic compounds and, perhaps, inert protobionts.
V. G. Kunde and collaborators published their findings on the composition of the Jupiter’s atmosphere. They observed Jupiter with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer and they discovered that the stratosphere of Jupiter was formed by abundant Methyl radicals, Acetylene, Diacetylene and Ethane. They found also Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Cyanide as products of the collision with the comet Shoemaker-Levy. This discovery had been predicted by my theory about the ringed cloud with a cold spongy center that surrounded the planets.
Jamie E. Elsila, J. Seb Gillette, Richard N. Zare, Max P. Bernstein, Jason P. Dworkin, Scott A. Sandford y Louis J Allamandola of the Department of Chemistry of the University of Stanford and of the SETI/CENTER Ames Research Center of NASA have found that the fractals with ice of the dense interstellar molecular nebulas contained a great variety of simple and aromatic molecules from diverse sizes. The frozen fractals are photoprocessed thanks to the ultraviolet light emitted by the stars, producing more complex molecules. It has been proposed that the interstellar photochemistry of ice can be the source of the organic compounds observed in the dust of comets, asteroids and carbonaceous meteorites (ACS-Special Symposium: "Extraterrestrial Organic Chemistry", U. C. Berkeley and SETI/NASA Ames Research Center). It clearly shows the accuracy of my theory, which states that the molecules formed at the interstellar medium, placed by fractals as an atmosphere of the primitive Earth, promoted the origin of the protobionts.
Charles L. Apel , Michael N. Mautner y David W. Deamer of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of the University of California in Santa Cruz, CA. have reported the possibility of self-synthesis of membranous vesicles of two hydrophobic layers, with selective permeability, and the possibility that these membranes were already present in the primitive Earth. This is also verification that the membranes could not be formed in the interplanetary space neither in the surface of the Earth because alcohols were necessary to be combined with monocarboxylic acid, of such form that the mixture of both was impossible in the hot environment of the recently-formed Earth. However, in accordance with my theory, the combination was possible in the terrestrial atmosphere -where the temperatures were not so high nor so cold- and the dust grains containing biomolecules and water formed the terrestrial atmosphere giving place to the synthesis of living archeobionts and after were placed smoothly on the terrestrial surface by the dragging of heavy drops of water, as the planet cooled, and because the cloud of dust and vapor of water diminished its orbital angular momentum by effect of the planetary gravity and the friction between particles.
BIOMOLECULES, INTERPLANETARY DUST GRAINS AND WATER
Water and Solar Nebula’s dust grains (fractals) could act well as protectors of the organic compounds synthesized at the Solar Nebula. There is no point of discussion on this because the organic compounds had to remain well protected from the action of Oxygen -which acts like a destructive agent of protein and nucleic acid molecules- and from cosmic radiations emitted by our Sun. We should never isolate a factor from the remainder of the dominant factors during the formation of stellar systems taking that factor as if they were the one and only element carrying out the event, or as if that factor were the singular component that could influence on the other factors.
There were destructive agents during the autocatalysis of chemical compounds, but there were also conservative and stabilizers components, for example, large volumes of water and tons of grains of dust (fractals) in the Solar Nebula. WE ARE INFERRING PROCESSES THROUGH THE ASSOCIATION OF REAL FACTS; WE ARE NOT ASSUMING A WHIMSICAL POSTURE FROM ARTIFICIAL IDEAS.
Interspatial grains of dust (fractals) are formed by the aggregation of several classes of molecules, including organic molecules. Grains of dust (fractals) are found in the Interstellar Medium building particles that are from fractions of a millimeter to several centimeters in diameter. The grains of dust (fractals) acted as protective "eggshells" for simple organic molecules in the early Solar System.
The space dust grains (fractals) form by the molecule aggregation of several classes, including organic molecules. The dust grains (fractals) are found in the Interstellar Media forming grains of diverse diameters, from fractions of millimeter to several meters. The dust grains acted like "egg protective shells" of simple organic molecules in the primitive Solar System. Soon those fractals formed planetary clouds. The soils and the atmosphere of our Earth formed from that revolving cloud done by fractals.
We cannot know with exactitude the conditions that dominated in the center of that cloud, but the conditions at the center of that tubular cloud were different from the conditions that reigned in the periphery of the same cloud. In addition, it is possible to infer that in the planetary clouds the materials were crowded around, forming curls and spirals, like the observed coils of the Saturn’s rings.
As we know, the temperature at the margins of the nebula increased excessively by the bombardment of energy and accelerated particles emitted by a violent youthful Sun in addition to the collisions between fractals. The high temperatures modified the central space of the dust, steam of water and gases cloud towards a more and more stable phase; consequently, the external layers and the exact center of the planetary nebula cannot be considered as practical locations for the production of biomolecules.
This occurs because the temperatures would be higher in the Earth center that in the peripheral planetary cloud. The values of temperature would be distributed progressively, beginning from the terrestrial crust (in where the outlines would express temperatures over 212.00°F) towards the center (in where the intense heat liquefied all class of materials). But in the layer that revolved between the Earth surface and the outer layer of the planetary cloud, wherein the temperatures would be below 212.00°F. In addition this cold space located between the most outer layer of the dusty cloud and the Earth’s surface would help to cool the terrestrial crust as the heat of the cloud was eliminated towards the gravitational field.
Now I will display the solution to the problem described in the previous paragraph, imagine a doughnut with a marble in its central hollow. The bread represents the planetary cloud that was revolving around Earth, adopting the form of a ring, turning around the sphere that represents the Earth. On each point of the surface of both the doughnut and the surface of the sphere, the temperature was different from zero. Was it possible that that place had a field of vectors with moderate temperatures that started off from each point of the inner wall of the doughnut? Yes, it was possible: it would be a space in where the temperatures would be below the 212.00°F.
The elastic central space of the doughnut would be a fresh and comfortable cavernous center. By baking a doughnut, you will warn that the surrounding heat of the furnace will toast the most external layer of the doughnut, whereas the center of the doughnut, far from being scorched, remains reasonably cooked. But it is a doughnut, with a hole in the center. If you twist the doughnut, the hole will change its appearance, but the hole will continue there, as a hole. In order to destroy the hole, you must cut or disintegrate the whole doughnut. We do not have to think about a compact doughnut, but in a cloud formed by loose fragments of diverse sizes forming a revolving ring.
The strongest point of this model is that the dust particles and the water ice crystals would be self-set from minor to greater diameters, starting from the layer of the ring that was adjacent to the terrestrial surface. The finest particles would be nearer to the Earth, and the heaviest particles would be in the most external layer of the ringed nebula (the one that was in contact with the outer space). However, the center of the tubular ring-shaped cloud would have a temperature not higher than 104.00°F.
The center of the cloud well could be the precise place where the essential organic compounds for the emergency of living beings were synthesized spontaneously.
BACKGROUND AND THE FINAL UNIFIED THEORY
When we study the topic of the Origin of Living Beings on Earth the classic scheme proposed by Oparin-Miller is about a nutritious broth where prebiotic organic molecules were catalyzed spontaneously to give origin to microspheres, coacervates, protobionts and, last, to living cells.
The first problem that arises from this proposal relates with the abiotic synthesis of prebiotic compounds and the maintenance of its structural integrity in a supersaturated atmosphere as it would be it a nutritious broth like the proposed one in the classic hypothesis.
These problems, including that of the Osmotic Catastrophe that I describe bellow, are perfectly resolved by the theory about the synthesis of biomembranes into the fractals’ fissures and gaps of the terrestrial ring-shaped nebula. It is more probable that the membranes of lipids have been synthesized on the films of water retained into the fractals of the terrestrial atmosphere than that they were formed into a nutritious soup full of compounds that prevented the physicochemical consolidation of those biomembranes.
The fact that a biomembrane were formed spontaneously on water films into fractals’ fissures is not a problem, given that astronauts already has verified by experimentation that the biomembranes can be spontaneously structured under microgravity and ordinary void conditions, for example, in the neighborhood of the terrestrial nebula. This also would be highly possible in an atmosphere saturated by organic and inorganic molecules.
The true problem is originated when the hypothesis of the nutritious soup supposes the existence of protobionts immersed in that soup that yet had not experienced life! It implies the very serious problem of the asymmetry that had to exist spontaneously, so that the just-formed biomembranes could maintain an internal hypertonic solution, given that they were situated into a hypothetical hypertonic surrounding environment. Examining the subject, we obtain three possible alternatives:
1. Hypotonic Model. Protobionts had a hypotonic internal environment in relation to the surrounding medium. This means that the internal medium enclosed by the biomembrane would contain a concentration chemical substance smaller than the concentration of chemical substances at the medium outer to the biomembrane.
This would generate the serious problem of the osmotic collapse (plasmolysis) since the substances would move spontaneously towards the interior of the vesicles and these would lose their contained water, drying themselves like raisins. In order to start on, the adjustment of such prebiotic systems would be impossible because the high concentration of oxidizing substances in that imaginary nutritive soup, which would not allow any spontaneous synthesis of biomembranes. The substances would tend to move from the environment towards the inside of the protobiont, whereas the water would tend to leave out from the protobiont. Remember the experiment on osmoregulation, wherein it was exemplified the form by which the molecules always move spontaneously from the side of higher concentration of a product towards the side of lower concentration of products, through a semipermeable membrane of cellulose, which maintains a osmotic balance between both sides of the semipermeable membrane. You know that this is due to the difference in the osmotic pressures at each side of semipermeable membranes.
2. Hypertonic Model. Protobionts would have a hypertonic internal solution with respect to the nutritious soup. That is to say, that the internal environment of the protobionts would have a concentration of substances greater than the concentration of substances in the nutritious soup or outer environment.
For this case, an osmotic catastrophe would happen due to the uncontrollable spontaneous absorption of water by the protobionts until they would burst out (lysis).
3. Isotonic Model. Protobionts would have an isotonic internal environment with respect to the nutritious broth. This means that the internal solution of the vesicles would have a concentration of substances equal to the substance concentration of the external environment. This environment would be the most appropriate for the stability of protobionts.
From these three models, we conclude that the primitive biomembranes had a mechanism of active transport, an incident that could have happened spontaneously.
The isotonic model would facilitate the chemical evolution of protobionts, unlike the other scenarios, which would absolutely prevent it. Nevertheless, it was not possible that the vesicles were globules simply surrounded by amphiphillic bilayered membranes because the first vesicles were not able to perform an active transport. which implies several steps generated by chemical affinity between the miscellaneous organic structures entirely produced by autocatalytic processes.
Then, the model of tiny dynamic spheres comes down in each one of the three proposed models. The only solution is the Vaneechoute’s model, which is the version of a large membrane extended on grounds of aquatic environments, covering cracks and gaps filled with complex organic substances that could communicate on both sides of the biomembranes. This way, by chemical affinity, some of the proteins that tried to get through those amphiphillic bilayered membranes would attach spontaneously to these, remaining as an advisable transporter of other substances.
Another very important thing was the spontaneous synthesis of biomembranes with the appropriate molecular structures that offered the minimum physical characteristics that induced them to experience an interaction between charged particles through photons, to be exact, to experience an Electrodynamic Field, Electrochemical Field, or Biotic Field.
I have the good news for you about the existence of modern living beings that do not have mitochondria or chloroplasts and that, even so, have cell membranes with the abovementioned physical characteristics. These cells can be true living fossils of those primitive vesicles, which budded from the main membranous mass. The sole difference between the archeobionts and these modern cells is the possession of Nucleic Acids. These modern living beings are Archaeobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteria. The existence of these living energy batteries gives us important evidences that corroborate our proposal on the Origin of Life on Earth, or Abiogenesis.
The only uncertainty with this model would be the mechanism through which the vesicles were wrapped absolutely by a biomembrane; although we could deduce that, when finishing the development of a vesicle, it was closed on itself through the same biological mechanism used by some bacteria and yeasts when budding; nevertheless, the protobionts were vesicles devoid of nucleic acids.
Could life exist without reproduction? Yes, in fact, the erythrocytes of mammals do not self-reproduce; even thus, they experience life through about six months. As red blood cells do not posses mitochondria, they do not posses a steady mechanism for programmed cell death; here, the substances produced by other cells with mitochondria take part; those substances are put in contact with the red blood cells’ membranes and introduced within the cytoplasm and then it starts the process of programmed cell death (Apoptosis). (Bratosin D. et all. Programmed cell death in mature erythrocytes: a model for investigating death effector pathways operating in the absence of mitochondria. National Library of Medicine. 2001; Vol. 8 (12): pp.1143).
Does this mean that the erythrocytes are immortal living beings? No, it does not, but they die when getting about six months old; the Apoptosis is used to kill the substandard cells, cells with an inconsistent metabolism, or to maintain the stability in the number of this species of blood cells. (Ham, Arthur W. J. B. Histology. Lippincott Company. 1974. New York, NY).
If we put a cockroach alive in a blender and we blend it, then we take all the bits of the cockroach -without lack of a single fragment- and we place them together into a Petri Dish, and then we put the mix to incubate, we will never obtain a living cockroach from the cockroach remains. Now, suppose that we can place together all the cockroach’s fragments to shape the complete body of the blended cockroach and we put it to incubate in its respective Petri Dish... We will never obtain a cockroach alive; besides, our reconstructed cockroach would be so unstable that it will disintegrate quickly. I want to prove with this that life only has had continuity from the first biont that existed on our planet about 3.9 billion years ago. Life is non-recoverable. We must to keep this information in mind for considering the subsequent arguments:
Empirically, we have confirmed that the spontaneous synthesis of ribozymes in nature is impossible. As in the case of our blended cockroach, they simply do not synthesize themselves spontaneously and we must to take part like direct and absolute activators and operators of the process. What is more, the autopoiesis simply is not applicable in the synthesis of nucleic acids, even when we placed all the small pieces of molecules in an appropriate medium; if an operator does not take part on it, the processes of nature will never generate molecules of nucleic acids spontaneously. However, it is feasible the generation of biomembranes through spontaneous processes in nature, therefore, while the radiations act as activators in the spontaneous synthesis of catalytic proteins, they act as a destructive force in the case of nucleic acids. If there were not an operator acting on the process, the nitrogenous bases would never assemble with Ribose spontaneously. Catalytic proteins were the operators when Abiogenesis started. For example, prions can duplicate themselves without an external operator. This is the reason because we are afraid of prions.
Then, how the first bionts reproduced themselves? We have concluded that they did not reproduce themselves as the contemporary cells do, by means of cell division. As an alternative, we have deduced that the first bionts could be large biomembranes stretched out on humid grounds, or at the bottom of small pools or watery layers, wherein the biomembranes associated with the accumulated substances in the cracks and holes of the floor. There, the biomembranas might interact with those substances for maintaining thermal and structural steady states. In addition, we thought that the Electrodynamic Field generated by an Electrochemical Gradient already could be manifested spontaneously in amphiphilic bilayered biomembranes.
The rest of the process would be developed by simple chemical affinity. The autocatalytic molecules compatible to the nucleotides could use these to store information and at the same time the new simple chained nucleotides could regulate the production of catalytic molecules that maintained the thermal stability of the whole biont during well-defined periods. Then, the nucleic acids were synthesized by a mere biochemical event, without a final purpose to create complete genomes. The first molecules of nucleic acid were quite simple and were synthesized according to the immediate necessities of bionts established by large biomembranes covering gaps of the irregular humid grounds where they stretched out. As the necessities for the storage of biochemical information were greater, the catalytic molecules of those bionts would add more and more nucleotide sequences to the primary chain, forming more and more complex chains. This one is the most reasonable explanation to the presence of apparently useless genes in the genomes of all living beings and to the presence of bacterial plasmids.
It is more feasible that the first biont did not reproduce itself by means of Mitosis or Meiosis, but that they generated something looked like vesicles that separated from larger biomembranes as these grew up in volume. Hundreds, thousands, millions, or perhaps billions of living vesicles just limited by their own membranes, sprouted from the large biomembranes, resembling to the reproductive process of some current bacteria and yeasts, but devoid of nucleic acids and/or ribozymes. (Campbell, Neil A. et al. Biology. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1999, Menlo Park, CA). One -or perhaps many- of those living vesicles devoid of genetic material could display the chemical affinity and the correct molecular structures demanded to be capable of taking compounds from the environment for synthesizing molecules of RNA (probably ribozymes) which were able to store the information of those archeobionts and to generate a codified selfreplication and reverse transcriptases.
This model disentangles most of the uncertainties that cannot be deciphered by the classic hypothesis of Oparin-Miller, the hypothesis of RNA-world and the hypothesis of Manifold-Meteorites Impacts.
SUMMARY OF THE ORIGIN OF LIVING BEINGS IN THE UNIVERSE
From the physical and chemical laws that rule the cosmos, we know that life is a thermal possibility in the whole Universe.
The elements are produced in the new generating stars by the effect of thermonuclear reactions in the first phases of the formation of the stars. Many stars rise from the condensation of gases and dust dispersed by the outbursts of supernovas. The stars thus originated are more feasible to have habitable planets than the stars with a lower metallicity because the stars with a low metallicity have a shorter life, related to their thermonuclear activity; thus, the stars with a low metallicity keep going active through so abbreviated time that they do not yield living beings to emerge and evolve on the planets orbiting them.
Most organic and inorganic compounds -especially water- are formed in the solar nebula thanks to fluctuations in the energy density, which causes phase transitions in the molecules that permit the spontaneous autosynthesis of simple organic and inorganic substances.
The water in the stellar nebulas permits the cooling of the interstellar medium, propitiating the synthesis of glycerol and more complex organic compounds, like ammonia, amino acids, lipids and perhaps globulins into holes and cracks of dust grains that contain water that suffers sudden phase transitions from solid phase to liquid phase and vice versa.
The ultraviolet radiation, the heat and other forms of stellar radiation, helped by condenser agents, cause the polymerization of simple compounds to make more organized molecules of hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, which are integrated like microscopic globules in the frozen water trapped by the granules of dust (fractals) of the planetary clouds.
When the planetary nebulas lower the temperature at a proper point, the spontaneous synthesis of microspheres with external membranes of lipoproteins occurs under the effect of UV radiation and the heat generated by the collisions among the particles of dust. The microspheres contain a larger diversity of organic compounds thanks to the agglomerative substrates that act like strata that facilitate the accumulation and interaction of substances; examples of agglomerative substrates are the granules of calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, silicon carbide, graphite, fullerenes (allotropic forms of carbon) or Iron Sulfur -which can or cannot contain ice of water- and by the action of condenser agents (substances that promote the abiotic synthesis of simple and complex biomolecules; for example, HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide) and C2H2 (acetylene). These compounds are abundant in the interplanetary medium of early stars and it has been artificially confirmed that they act like condenser agents. The trials indicate that the biopolymerization of proteins and complex sugars is facilitated by these agents and by reactions promoted mainly by high energy bosons.
Going back to the microspheres, the particles of dust (fractals) suspended in the planetary atmospheres retain the microspheres into their holes and fissures. The dust grains work like protective shields of the biomolecules against the stars’ ionizing radiation, so the phase transitions permit the synthesis of more complex biomolecules, for example, waxes, phospholipids, proteins and lipoproteins. These molecules build highly stable and lasting membranes that contain a higher number of microspheres with diverse biological products; however, the single membranes are ephemeral because the radiation emitted by the stars that is received by the planets destroys them. However, many microspheres that are segregated from the surroundings by membranes or by membrane-like structures subsist in that hostile environment because they remain into dust grains containing icy water.
Due to their low resistance to the cosmic radiation, it is not feasible the synthesis of nucleotides in the interplanetary space. Probably, the nucleotides synthesize on the planets a long time after the emergence of the first living forms. Besides, the synthesis of molecules of nucleic acids does not occur spontaneously or no-spontaneously in nature. By this reason, the protobionts built in the planetary medium cannot have any form of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA).
The Gravitational Force of planets maintains to the small stellar dust grain accretions with microspheres wrapped by membrane amphiphilic in planetary orbits, forming dense clouds of dust, vapor of water, ammonia, acetylene, hydrogen cyanide, methane, carbon dioxide and other gases; however, the acceleration of the grains of dust and the intense heat emitted from the surface of the planets impede the setting down of the dust on the planetary surfaces. At later phases through the gestation of the planets, the water vapor condenses in the planetary atmospheres forming heavy drops that precipitate on the planetary soils dragging the grains of dust with and without microspheres with them.
Even suspended in the planetary atmospheres, the microspheres are agglutinated into the humid grains of dust to form prebiotic structures segregated by more complex amphiphilic membranes –known like protobionts- that are not yet living forms, but already experience transfers of energy as living forms (bionts) do.
When the planets chill fast and rains can occur, the fractals with and without protobionts are dragged down by the water drops unto the planets’ surfaces.
Once placed on the planetary grounds, resting on humid layers of soil or on the bottoms of shallow ponds, the protobionts can be maintained stable under dense clouds of dust and water vapor suspended in the planetary atmospheres which protect them from the intense cosmic radiation.
Thousands of millions of protobionts can be destroyed by the aggressive conditions of the planetary environments; nevertheless, when the planets make colder and the stars are less unstable, the basic structures of the protobionts can remain stable during more prolonged periods of time. The difference consists of being in microenvironments with the basic factors that permit them to resist and prevail under the pressure of the early planetary environments.
The later chemical evolution depends on the amalgamation of protobionts, one to other, by electrochemical affinity. The protobionts fuse one to other forming vesicles with continuous membranes. Those complex vesicles rest on the humid soils or in the bottom of shallow or subterranean ponds. The fractures and holes of soils, full of chemical substances, are covered by the biomembranes establishing microenvironments chemically similar to the cytosol of modern cells. It blocks the osmotic catastrophe that would occur if the hypothesis of the "nutritious broth" of Oparin were real. The paleontology and geological observations clearly indicate that the "nutritious broths" have not existed and cannot exist in nature.
Once fused, some protobionts become into bionts by possessing molecular configurations that are apt to experience the biotic phase thanks to successive chemical structural changes in the biomembranes. This intricate configuration of biomembranes permits the aggregate of polypeptides and glycopeptides that promotes changes in the magnetic fields which start patterns of electrochemical gradients that establishes an electrodynamic field that permits the transfer of energy through particles. The bionts (living beings) self-synthesize through this system. It is the mechanism by which any living form existing anywhere in the universe emerges.
From the viewpoint of my hypothesis, all the living beings existing on any planet can be generated from a single living and replicable biont. Its reproduction would be similar to yeast budding, but in total absence of nucleic acids. The autocatalytic proteins contain the necessary information for autocatalysis.
Let’s come back to the cosmic abiogenesis: The biomembranes extended on the bottoms of ponds, coating holes and cracks on soils packed with organic substances, carry out active transfers of fermions and compounds with the environment.
The incorporation of proteins, lipids, and other complex molecules to the cytosol promotes the formation of molecular structures specialized in the transfer of energy from the surroundings; for example, molecules of ATP Synthase, single RNA nucleotides, short molecules of RNA, NADP, ADP, etc. The small chains of RNA are synthesized by the autocatalytic proteins with biochemical affinity toward the nucleotides transferring the information of the amino acids sequences toward codifier molecules of RNA.
In this way, the bionts are maintained stable through longer periods, besides they can transfer the information of their individual characteristics through the sequences of RNA toward the new generated vesicles through the development of their cytosol. Protected under a darkened sky by suspended dust and diverse vapors, in deposits of water and at not more than 36° C, the bionts reproduce by means of the formation of vesicles that grow out from the membranes as bubbles or buds that have the same functional and structural characteristics of their ancestors.
The autocatalytic proteins, by their physicochemical characteristics, obligatorily direct the synthesis of simple molecules of RNA, forming longer chains each time containing all the information for the synthesis of the same autocatalytic proteins and identical RNA molecules. Later, the same autocatalytic proteins produce nucleotides of DNA and, after this, complete DNA chains.
The flexibility of this hypothesis permits us to assume that the Ribozymes are not necessary for the synthesis of biomolecules, which can be multiplied through the transformation of the quarter biomolecules of other proteins in the same one cytosol. For example, the reproduction of prions that are thought to possess molecular configurations very similar to the configuration of the primeval proteins.
Earth is not the unique planet of the solar system that had favorable conditions for the emergence of bionts. There are sidereal bodies where living beings could be formed like on Earth; however, although those extraterrestrial bionts had not the minimal possibilities of survival due to the inappropriate conditions of the planetary environments where they had been formed or due to sudden and extreme planetary climate transitions. For example, the living beings could emerge on Mars by the same epoch that on Earth, however, a sudden and severe climate change in the planet, occurred some 400 million years after its concretion, destroyed all the bionts that could be living on that planet. (Shuster and Weiss. Science. 2006).
PREDICTIONS OF THIS THEORY
This Theory on the origin of life and living beings considers the finding of water in the Interstellar Medium (IM).
This Theory on the origin of life and living beings considers the finding of complex organic compounds in the IM.
This Theory on the origin of life and living beings consider the finding of water in other planets, inside and out side the Solar System.
This Theory on the origin of life and living beings predicts the finding of microspheres in the IM.
This Theory on the origin of life and living beings considers the finding of complex organic compounds in other planets, inside and out of the Solar System.
This Theory considers the existence of living beings in other places of the Universe.
This Theory foresees the discovery of living forms in other planets of the Solar System.
This Theory predicts the discovery of living forms on other worlds out of the Solar System, in stellar systems inside our galaxy.
This Theory foresees the discovery of living forms on worlds of other stellar systems out of our galaxy.
This Theory predicts the universal evolution of the biomolecules toward structures every time more efficient for the execution of the biothermal process.
This Theory foresees the possibility on the production of biosystems in vitro.
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