“For the last 400 years science has advanced by reductionism... The idea is that you could understand the world, all of nature, by examining smaller and smaller pieces of it. When assembled, the small pieces would explain the whole” (John Holland).

Compilation of new Data in Physics and Cosmology and its Application on Support of the Theory of Abiogenesis.

By Biologist Nasif Nahle
Council Leadership/Researcher Biology Cabinet Org., New Braunfels, Tx.

CONFERENCE PRESENTED BY NASIF NAHLE AT MONTERREY, N.  L., MEXICO, ON FEBRUARY 27, 2004, AT THE AUDITORIUM OF THE LIBRARY "FRAY SERVANDO TERESA DE MIER". Theory published on November 14, 2002

Nahle, Nasif. CONFERENCE “ABIOGENESIS”. ADDRESSED TO SCIENTISTS AND STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, U. A. N. L.; San Nicolas de los Garza, N.  L., MEXICO. September 3rd, 2004.

SYNOPSIS

ABIOGENESIS MEANS "ORIGIN BY ABIOTIC PROCESSES ". THE CONCEPT REFERS TO THE "GENERATION OF LIVING BEINGS THAT START AS INERT SYSTEMS, BY MEANS OF INORGANIC AUTOCATALYTIC PROCESSES".

We do not have a direct definition of life, but from direct and indirect observations of the thermal state of the living structures, we can say that: Life is a delay of the spontaneous diffusion or dispersion of the internal energy of the biomolecules towards more potential microstates.

THE LIFE IS A POSSIBILITY IN THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE FROM THE CONCLUSION OF THE INFLATIONARY PERIOD, AFTER THE BIG BANG.

THE TERRESTRIAL LIVING BEINGS EMERGED THOUSANDS OF MILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG (ABOUT 9.000 MILLION YEARS LATER).

THE ELEMENTS WERE SYNTHESIZED IN THE SOLAR NEBULA BY EFFECT OF THE RADIATION EMITTED FROM THE THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS OF THE SUN.

THE WATER AND OTHER ORGANIC AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS WERE FORMED IN THE SOLAR NEBULA AS A RESULT OF A FLUCTUATION IN THE DENSITY OF ENERGY TO AN APPROPRIATE LEVEL THAT ALLOWED THE COMBINATION OF THE ELEMENTS TO FORM COMPOUNDS.

WATER IN THE SOLAR NEBULA ALLOWED THE COOLING OF INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM CAUSING THE SYNTHESIS OF MORE COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, FOR EXAMPLE, CARBOHYDRATES, AMMONIAC, AMINO ACIDS, LIPIDS, GLYCERALDEHYDES AND GLOBULINS INSIDE THE INTERPLANETARY DUST GRAINS WHICH CONTAINED ICY WATER. (PLEASE REVISE: http://pokey.arc.nasa.gov/%7Emax/abstracts.html).

LIGHT UV, HEAT AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE INITIATED THE SYNTHESIS OF CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, GLOBULINS AND LIPIDS, WHICH WERE INTEGRATED LIKE MICROSCOPIC GLOBULES WITHIN WATER ICE CRYSTALS INCLUDED BY THE DUST GRAINS (FRACTALS), WHICH FORMED NEARLY ALL THE SOLAR NEBULA. THIS HAPPENED IN THE PLANETARY CLOUDS, FOR EXAMPLE, THE EARTH’S NEBULA. (PLEASE REVISE: http://pokey.arc.nasa.gov/%7Emax/abstracts.html).

WHEN THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETARY NEBULA BECAME ENOUGH COLDER, THANKS TO THE UV LIGHT AND THE HEAT GENERATED BY THE COLLISIONS BETWEEN PARTICLES, OCCURRED THE SYNTHESIS OF MICROSPHERES WITH EXTERNAL LIPOPROTEIN MEMBRANES. THESE MICROSPHERES CONTAINED A GREATER DIVERSITY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, WHICH WERE RETAINED ALSO WITHIN THE DUST PARTICLES (FRACTALS) SUSPENDED IN THE PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES.

THE DUST GRAINS (FRACTALS) ACTED LIKE THE BIOMOLECULES PROTECTIVE “EGGSHELLS" AGAINST THE IONIZING SOLAR RADIATION. THUS, THE CHEMICAL CHANGES ALLOWED THE SYNTHESIS OF MORE COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATE, PROTEINS AND LIPIDS MOLECULES, WHICH REACHED TO THE STRUCTURE OF CUASI-STABLE AND HIGHLY-LASTING MEMBRANES IN THE SHAPE OF MICROSPHERES. NEVERTHELESS, THOSE MEMBRANES PERSISTED ON BEING EPHEMERAL BY THE INTENSITY OF THE COSMIC RADIATION THAT COULD DESTROY THEM. MANY MICROSPHERES THAT WERE ENCLOSED BY MEMBRANES SUBSISTED IN THAT HOSTILE ATMOSPHERE THANKS TO THAT THEY WERE INTO SOLID DUST GRAINS COVERED BY WATER ICE.

DUE TO THEIR VERY LOW RESISTANCE AGAINST THE COSMIC RADIATION, THE NUCLEOTIDES OF DNA HAD ONLY RESISTED IF THEY HAD BEEN SYNTHESIZED BEHIND PROTECTIVE SCREENS AND AT TEMPERATURES LESSER THAN 122.00°F, SO IT WOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE THAT, AT THAT MOMENT OF THE EVOLUTION OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM, MOLECULES OF DNA NOR NUCLEOTIDES OF RNA COULD HAVE BEEN SYNTHESIZED. NEVERTHELESS, THE SPONTANEOUS AUTOCATALYSIS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS DOES NOT HAPPEN IN THE REAL NATURE.

THE GRAVITY FORCE MAINTAINED SMALL PILES OF DUST GRAINS (FRACTALS) HOLDING MICROSPHERES SURROUNDED BY AMPHIPHILIC MEMBRANES ON PLANETARY ORBITS, FORMING DENSE CLOUDS OF WATER STEAM, AMMONIA, METHANE AND CARBON DIOXIDE; NEVERTHELESS, THE ANGULAR MOMENT OF THOSE PARTICLES AND THE INTENSE HEAT FROM THE PLANETARY CRUSTS PREVENTED THE DROP OF DUST GRAINS ON THE SURFACES OF PLANETS.

YET SUSPENDED IN PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES, SOME MICROSPHERES AGGLUTINATED THEMSELVES WITHIN THE DUST GRAINS WITH WATER TO FORM SMALL PREBIOTIC STRUCTURES CALLED PROTOBIONTS, WHICH WERE NOT YET LIVING FORMS BUT ALREADY WERE SURROUNDED BY BILAYERED AMPHIPHILIC MEMBRANES.

WHEN THE PLANETS COOLED ENOUGH, THE FRACTALS THAT CONTAINED PROTOBIONTES WERE DRAGGED BY THE PLUVIAL PRECIPITATIONS ONTO THE SURFACE OF PLANETS. IN ORDER THAT THIS HAPPENED, THE ORBITAL ANGULAR MOMENT OF THE CLOUD OF DUST AND GASES OF THE PRIMITIVE EARTH MUST HAVE DIMINISHED AT A SMALLER SPEED TO THAT OF THE EARTH’S ROTATIONAL MOVEMENT.

ONCE PLACED ON PLANETARY SOILS, INTO SHALLOW POUNDS OR ON HUMID LAYERS ON ROCKS, THE PROTOBIONTS COULD REMAIN STABLE WHEN REMAINING BEHIND PROTECTIVE SCREENS, FOR EXAMPLE, DENSE CLOUDS OF WATER STEAM AND DUST SUSPENDED IN THE PLANETARY ATMOSPHERE.

THOUSANDS OF MILLION OF PROTOBIONTS WERE DESTROYED BY THE AGGRESSIVE CONDITIONS OF THE PLANETARY ATMOSPHERE; NEVERTHELESS, WHEN THE EARTH COOLED STILL MORE, AND THE SUN WAS LESS UNSTABLE, MORE PROTOBIONTS COULD STRUCTURALLY REMAIN COMPLETE. THE DIFFERENCE CONSISTED OF HAVING OR NOT HAVING "AT HAND" EACH NECESSARY FACTOR THAT MADE THEM ENOUGH RESISTANT TO PREVAIL BEFORE THE PRESSURE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL NATURAL SELECTION EXERTED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF ALL PRIMITIVE PLANETS.

THE FOLLOWING CHEMICAL EVOLUTION CONSISTED OF THE AGGLUTINATION OF PROTOBIONTS, ONE WITH OTHERS, BY ELECTROCHEMICAL AFFINITY. PROTOBIONTS WERE INTEGRATED ONE TO ANOTHER FORMING A CONTINUOUS MEMBRANE PLACED ON HUMID SOILS OR AT THE BOTTOM OF LITTLE DEEP PONDS. THE BIOMEMBRANES THAT WERE UNDER FISSURES AND HOLLOWS FULL OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN THE GROUND FORMED MICRO-ENVIRONMENTS COMPARABLE TO THE CYTOSOLS OF MODERN CELLS. THIS PREVENTED THE OSMOTIC CATASTROPHE THAT HAD HAPPENED IF THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE NUTRITIOUS SOUP HAD BEEN REAL. LUCKILY, THAT PRETENDED HYPERTONIC NUTRITIOUS SOUP NEVER EXISTED AND YOU AND I ARE HERE, TRYING TO ELUCIDATE THE PUZZLES LAUNCHED BY OUR OLD HYPOTHESIS ON NUTRITIOUS SOUPS.

AT THIS MOMENT, THE PROTOBIONTS THAT HAD A SUITABLE MOLECULAR STRUCTURE COULD EXPERIENCE THE QUANTUM STATE OF LIFE THANKS TO A PHASE TRANSITION IN THE BIOMEMBRANES CAUSED BY THE INCORPORATION PEPTIDES, CARBOHYDRATES AND GLYCOPEPTIDES THAT ALLOWED THEM TO EXPERIENCE AN ELECTRODYNAMIC FIELD. THUS, THE FIRST BIONT OR LIVING BEING APPEARED ON EARTH. BIONTS WERE THE ANCESTORS OF ALL THE LIVING BEINGS WHO HAVE EXISTED AND NPW EXIST ON OUR PLANET.

I MUST CLARIFY THAT IN AGREEMENT WITH THIS THEORY, IT WAS ONLY NEEDED A VIABLE BIONT TO GENERATE ALL LIVING BEINGS THAT HAVE EXISTED ON OUR PLANET.

THE BIOMEMBRANES STRETCHED ON HUMID OR SUBMERGED SOILS, COVERING THE FLOOR GAPS PACKED WITH ORGANIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES, COULD EXERT AN ACTIVE INTERCHANGE OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND IONS WITH THE SURROUNDING COSMOS.

THE INCORPORATION OF PROTEIN MOLECULES CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, AND OTHER CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS TO ITS PLASMA CONSTITUTED THE FORMATION OF MORE COMPLEX MOLECULAR STRUCTURES, INCLUDING ATP, NADP AND SMALL CHAINS BUILT WITH ONE, TWO OR THREE NUCLEOTIDES OF RNA, WHICH ALREADY COULD STORE FRACTIONS FROM THE WHOLE INFORMATION OF THE PRIMITIVE BIONT. MOST OF THE PROTOBIONTS DID NOT PERSIST THROUGH GREAT PERIODS, BUT MANY OTHERS STAYED STABLE UNTIL THE NEXT PHYSICOCHEMICAL EVENT.

DIVERSELY PROTECTED BY AN ATMOSPHERE SATURATED BY DUST AND WATER STEAM, IN LITTLE DEEP WATER RESERVOIRS AT NOT MORE OF 96.80°F, THE PROTOBIONTS REPLICATED THEMSELVES BY MEANS OF FORMATION OF VESICLES THAT SEPARATED FROM THE MAIN BIOMEMBRANE, AS BUBBLES OR SIMILAR TO THE BUDS OF SPONGES, YEASTS AND BACTERIA.

THEN, THE AUTOCATALYTIC PROTEINS BEGAN TO DIRECT THE SYNTHESIS SHORT MOLECULE OF RNA; SOON, THEY SYNTHESIZED COMPLETE MOLECULE OF RNA, WHICH ALREADY COULD CONTAIN IN THEIR MOLECULAR ARRAY ALL THE CODED INFORMATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF MORE CATALYTIC PROTEINS SIMILAR TO THE INITIAL AUTOCATALYTIC MOLECULES.

THE FLEXIBILITY OF THIS THEORY ALLOWS US TO ASSUME THAT RIBOZYMES WERE NOT ESSENTIAL FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF CATALYTIC BIOMOLECULES, WHICH COULD SELFREPLICATE BY A WAY VERY SIMILAR TO THE REPLICATION OF PRIONS.

APPARENTLY, THE EARTH WAS THE SOLE PLANET OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM WITH THE ABSOLUTELY FAVORABLE CONDITIONS FOR THE SURVIVAL, DEVELOPMENT AND EVOLUTION OF BIONTS.

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