BIOLOGY

The classical definition of Biology is:

Biology is the science of life.

A more realistic and accurate definition of Biology is the reductionist definition:

Biology is the natural science that studies the no-spontaneous transfer of energy and the quasi-stable systems that experience it.

Now that we have inferred a realistic definition of life, things will go easier. My definition of life is based on careful observations about the behavior of the state of equilibrium in biosystems.

In general, we knew that life was related to the thermodynamic descriptions assigned to the evolution of the universe.

Thus, many things that the theory of life had not elucidated now are solved. For example, the origin of life, when the inert coacervates, or primitive protobionts, were converted into bionts (living beings), why currently living beings do not emerge by non-biological synthesis; if a virus is or it is not a living being; the meaning of biological death, etc.

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IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGY

Biological disciplines imply a significant responsibility for the protection and welfare of all living species. The knowledge about the diversity of life forms and their conservation-exploitation is of great importance for our day by day life.

¿Have you gotten sick some time?  Well, all we have got ill some times and in order that our doctor was able to accomplish a good diagnosis from our illness, he or she had to be familiar with the normal organic functions that we consider within the homeostatic parameters. This normal state, or homeostasis, is investigated by Biology.

The study on the origin of diseases and plagues is also answerable by means of Biology, for example the etiology of cancer, infections, functional problems, the damage to fruits, the pathologies of farm animals, plants, trees, etc. 

Food resources and quality, factors that cause illnesses, plagues, sustainable exploitation of natural resources, the enhancement and development of useful species, the discovery and production of medicines, the study of the functions of living beings, their inheritance, etc., all are fields of research through Biology.

The food that we consume are materials produced by living beings, the Biology studies the living beings and the processes implied in the production of those nutritional substances. Besides, by means of the Biotechnology, the Biologists search for methods that make to the producers to be more efficient in the elaboration of food and other supplies for humans.

The Biology covers the study of all the living beings and their interactions into the biosphere. This it is a very important task because we are able to know the behavior or functioning of each population when it faces to other individuals from other populations or communities and how the populations or the specific sectors of the biosphere are affected and/or benefited by that behavior or functioning of the populations into a community..

The Biology also investigate the environmental factors that surround the living beings; and, by means of conservationism, it seeks for more effective ways to understand the variations or new conditions of the environment that can threaten the existence of living beings on our planet.

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Please, read our page on WHAT IS LIFE, for an enhanced explanation.

WHAT IS LIFE?

The interaction of charged particles, electrons and protons, through uncharged particles, expressly through photons, determines the positions and momentums of the energy during the performance of the Proton Motive Force.

The exact quantity of kinetic energy, associated with its location in a given time and space is known as a microstate of the energetic molecules (or thermodynamic systems). It depends on the Biotic Field, specifically, on the amount of energy assigned for the space where the interaction of charged particles happens - promoted by photons- to generate the Proton Motile Force, which is the physical expression, detectable and quantifiable, of life. This nature of interactions between charged particles through photons takes place in any electrodynamic field. We do not have a direct definition of life, but from direct and indirect observations of the thermal state of the living structures, we can give the next definition of life:

Life is a delay of the spontaneous diffusion or dispersion of the internal energy of the biomolecules towards more potential microstates.

An operational definition is a description of a variable, a term, or an object in terms of the specific process or the set of corroboration assessments used to determine its existence and quantity. The properties described by an operational definition should be publicly accessible so that one or more persons –other than the person that defined the concept- can measure it or test it independently at will, for themselves.

An operational definition is generally designed to model a conceptual definition, to be precise, by using words and concepts to describe a variable.

Phase Space is the space at which all the possible states of a system are represented. The phase space is produced by the general positions and their corresponding conjugated moments.

A conjugated moment derives from the difference between the kinetic energy and the potential energy in relation to an integral coordinate.

Delaying is not the same as revert; although revert could cause a delay, it is not the behavior of processes or states in nature. Many authors say that life involves a violation of the second law of thermodynamics, or that it follows trajectories against entropy, which is not factual. The referred law indicates that the energy always flows from a space or system with a high density of energy toward another space or system with a lower density of energy, which is precisely how life occurs. The Universe has a higher density of energy than that of the biosystems. If it were not thus, then life would not be possible.

The confusion was originated when some properties associated with the entropy were subordinated like alternatives to explain biotic features; for example, order, complexity, etc. However, to acquire order or to be more complex, the biosystem should transfer disorder toward the Universe and it has to take complexity from the Universe. Seen in this way, there is not any violation at the second principle of thermodynamics, every time that the biosystems are more disordered than the Universe and its disorder flows from the most disorderly system (the biosystems) toward the less disorderly system (the Universe). The major order of the Universe -as a whole- in contrast with any of its components, is specified by the theory of the energy density of the Higgs’ fields.

Given that life implies a state of the energy, it is precise that we know what energy is. Energy is the capability to do work, that is to say, a function of the quantifiable properties of a provided system.

Another term used in the conceptualization of life, essentially important for its formulation, is Quantum Energy. The term refers to the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy in a particle, which can be fermions or bosons.

The quantum energy (to be precise, the energy contained by a particle or a quantum) is proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation at which that particle of energy corresponds.

The formula to obtain the value of the quantum Energy is E = h f, where E is the quantum energy of a photon, h is the constant of Planck (6.626 X 10e-34 J.s) and f is the frequency of vibration of the radiant energy.

In the operational definition of life I used the concept of internal energy: internal energy of a system is the energy associated to the movement of the molecules in a thermodynamic system, that is to say, the energy subordinated to the temperature of such system. In an energy transfer, the internal energy of a biosystem is the energy that has already been transferred through the real or imaginary limits of that system (toward the inside of that system).  For example, a multicellular biont has an external protector cover that isolates it partially from the environment.  Each cell of a multicellular biont has a membrane or a wall that constitutes its real limits. There are organelles, as mitochondria, chloroplasts, etc. into each cell that have their own membranes as real limits, etc.

In the definition of internal energy I avoided to mention the words “disorderly”, “random” and “chaos” in relation to the molecular movement because the movements at a mesoscopic level are determined by microscopic fundamental laws that can be formally described by the mathematical notions of natural phenomena; therefore, the molecular movements are not chaotic, disordered or accidental.  A small variation in the initial conditions can produce a change in the displacement of the particles, whether that we perceive or not that microscopic oscillation or the law that governs it.

What we call quantum state is the position, movement and energy density that follow a wave trajectory in discrete magnitudes or quanta.  In this case, we refer to particles -like the fermions and the bosons- that establish the function of distribution of the energy in the intervals of delay in the spontaneous transfer of that energy.

The fermions are particles that have an intrinsic angular momentum that, calculated in units of Spin, is equal to an odd number from a fraction (1/2 or 0.5, 3/2 or 1.5, etc.) and that obey at the Exclusion Principle of Pauli. The fermions cannot coexist in the same position. Fermions are particles that comprise matter; for example, electrons, quarks, leptons, protons, neutrons, etc.

On the other hand, the bosons are particles whose angular momentum is always a whole number (0, 1, 2, 3, etc...), then, they do not obey the Exclusion Principle of Pauli and can coexist in the same position. For example, photons, gluons, particles w- and w+, gravitons, etc.

Angular Moment of Spin refers to the presence of angular momentum in an elementary quantized particle and not to a rotational movement. The magnitude of the spin of a quantized particle is obtained by the relation,

L =ħ √s (s + 1)

Where ħ is the Reduced Planck’s constant [ħ = h/2π = 1.054572 x 10-27 g-cm^2/s] and s is an integral or a non negative half-integral.

h = 6.6260693 x 10-34 J.s
p = 3.1415926535897932384626433832795

Energy Density is the quantity of energy stored in a given system, or in a spatial region expressed per mass or volume units. For example, the liquid Hydrogen has an energy density of 120 MJoules per kilogram. The glucose has 17 MJoules per kilogram, etc.

A spontaneous process is that in which the energy always is dispersed toward more potential microstates. By this, when I talk about life, I am referring to no-spontaneous processes. For a spontaneous process to occur, it is not required the aggregation of energy of the environment, but of the transfer of energy toward the environment (exergonic process).  In contrast, the life processes are endergonic, that is to say, processes that requires of the input of energy from the environment, or no-spontaneous processes.

In the definition of life I also introduced the concept of interval.  An interval is a subset of states situated amid an initial state and a final state.

Finally, the quantum state of the energy in a biotic system is established by the flow of fermions and bosons that possess a quasi-stable density of energy during the transfer and storage of the energy through limited periods of time. For example, in the process of Transquantum Thermal Biotransfer of photosynthesis we study the positions, density and movements of the internal energy of a boson (photon) and of the fermions (electrons and protons) implied in the successive biotransfer of the energy freed by that boson. In the Transquantum Thermal Biotransfer of fermentation we study the density and the movements of the internal energy of the fermions, etc.

When we examine particles of matter, or with mass, we can only study a kind of particle, a given position or a given movement at once. Similarly, on studying the functions at some stage in the transfer and storage of the energy we can only study a function at one time. Once we have completed the study of each particle and each function, we integrate immediately the whole set to formulate the complete process.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING BEINGS:

ORGANIZATION: The living beings present a functional and structural organization.  Both, structure and function, are narrowly interrelated.

The organization of the structures and the linkage of their function distinguish to living beings from inert beings more than an upper order or exceptional complexities. The molecules self organize to construct cells, the cells to form tissues, the tissues to form out organs, the organs apparatuses and systems, and the assembly of all the interconnected systems makes an individual. There are individuals that are constituted by only one cell, for example bacteria, protists and some fungi (for example yeasts and molds); however, although in quantity and/or volume a multicellular organism possesses more matter, they will not be more complex or more ordered than a unicellular individual.

It is feasible to find well organized inert beings, by which we need to include other contextual-to-life characteristics. The observation of the whole set of characteristics permits us to distinguish between living beings and inert beings. The other characteristics that will help us are Reproduction and Evolution, although we even can find well organized inert beings that self reproduce and evolve, there is another characteristic that an inert being cannot cover, the no-spontaneous manipulation of the energy to continue getting it from the environment.

REPRODUCTION: Reproduction is the characteristic of living beings that permits the individuals to make replicas of their kind. Although some organic molecules are able to make replicas from themselves, they lack of the other characteristics of living beings.



Life only proceeds from life, the living beings cannot be originated from inert matter. This is a biological axiom called Biogenesis.

The continuity of life depends on the transmission of the hereditary characteristics, which is based on the DNA molecules. 

EVOLUTION:  Living beings interact with their environment. As the environmental conditions change, the organisms have to adapt to those changes. The evolution refers to the changes that should occur in the organisms so that they adapt to the changes of the environment.

So that those changes in the organism be considered in the context of the evolutionary adaptation, they should occur in the DNA. In this way, the change will be inherited to the progeny.

Some authors include more characteristics of living beings, but due to many biologists consider that virus are living beings, I prefer to describe the minimum requirements for any being to be considered alive. (PLEASE READ BELLOW A CLOSURE ON VIRUS)


Then what are the differences between inert thermodynamic systems and living thermodynamic systems?

  • Inert thermodynamic systems capture spontaneously energy from the environment, as living thermodynamic systems do; but inert thermodynamic systems cannot delay no-spontaneously the increasing of possible microstates where their local energy will be dispersed to, as living beings do.

  • Some inert thermodynamic systems can continue their quantum state by self-reproducing, as living thermodynamic systems do; but inert thermodynamic systems cannot preserve their lowest number of possible microstates from one generation to another generation. The living thermodynamic systems maintain a cuasi-stable amount of microstates that had to be increased spontaneously (change of entropy), temporarily expanding the increase of their local entropy. Nonliving thermodynamic systems also can maintain a limited number of available microsystems. Nevertheless, in nonliving thermodynamic systems there are not internal operators that carry out this action, whereas the living systems have a series of processes in cascade that operate from their internal system and maintain their internal energy within a thermal state of no equilibrium.

  • Some inert thermodynamic structures can grow, as living thermodynamic structures do; but the limits of their growth have not defined limits as living thermodynamic systems have.

  • Similar to living thermodynamic molecular structures, some inert thermodynamic molecular structures evolve; but inert thermodynamic systems evolve only through a limited number of trajectories, while living thermodynamic molecular structures are able to evolve through multiple trajectories. This difference obeys to the spontaneous tendency of all macrostructures towards equilibrium. Living thermodynamic systems have more ways than inert thermodynamic systems to elude temporarily this tendency.

The last should be explained by an example: Consider an inert system to confront a selective pressure from the environment, for example, a protein exposed to a temperature of 50° C. As an inert system, it will experience a phase transition to a phase known as denaturalization, or it will go through a phase of disintegration. These will be limited spontaneous trajectories available for the inert thermodynamic systems to evolve as a reaction before a pressure from the environment. It will be determined by the universal spontaneous tendency towards equilibrium.

Now consider a living thermodynamic system, for example a bacterium. As the bacterium is exposed to 50° C, she will respond through many spontaneous mechanisms for defending herself from the hostile variation in her environment to continue being alive. One of them is by adopting a macrostate denominated spore; another way consists of a biochemical adaptation to that condition by producing proteins that will help her to tolerate higher temperatures. Another trajectory will be by trying to elude the area where the pressure takes place, etc. As we can see, the living thermodynamic systems also bear the spontaneous tendency towards equilibrium, but they can block the tendency by longer periods than inert thermodynamic systems can, because the inert beings permits without restraint the spontaneous increase of its available microstates.

Nevertheless, all of this is ambiguous and exhausting. Indeed, there is only one sure difference between living beings and inert beings:

Living beings are able to set no-spontaneously (autonomously) a transitory quasi-steady sequence of intervals that delays the spontaneous transference of thermal equilibrium by means of inner operators.

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LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN BIOLOGY

The biologists do not come to an agreement on this issue. Many of them say that the levels of organization in Biology begin with the cell; however, the best part of the authors thinks that the biological levels begin with the molecules. Well, anyway, the knowledge does not hurt; then, we will begin with the study of the molecules.

We can see a Biological order in every organism in the world, and we can find levels  of organization from the atoms to the largest living thing. The  atoms are organized to form molecules, the molecules to form cells, the cells to form tissues, the tissues to form organs, the organs to form apparatuses and systems, and these form the whole called an organism, a group of individuals that share the same genetic characteristics (of one species) forms a population, a group of different populations forms a community, the communities interact with their environment to constitute an Ecosystem, the sum of all ecosystems and communities on Earth is the Biosphere. The biosphere is the largest level of organization in biology.

MOLECULAR LEVEL: Atoms from the same kind (element) or from different kinds (compound) link to form a molecule.

There are some elemental molecules in nature formed by only one atom (monatomic molecules), like krypton, argon, helium, neon, xenon, etc. Nevertheless, most molecules are formed by two or more atoms (like hydrogen, oxygen, sugar, oil, amino acids, etc.).

When different atoms combine to form molecules, we call them compounds. A typical example for a compound is the water. Water is formed by one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen.

There are two kinds of compounds: Organic compounds and inorganic compounds.

Organic molecules have carbon atoms in their structure, while inorganic molecules do not have carbon atoms. Living things' structures are built with organic compounds; this is to say with carbon based molecules:

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CHEMISTRY OF LIFE

Living beings are constituted by matter.

Matter is a form of energy which has substance and mass, and occupies a portion of space.

Matter is constituted by minuscule aggregates of stored energy known as particles which stack together to form larger particles called nuclei. Nuclei attract and capture other particles identified as electrons, which are placed into orbital layers surrounding nuclei, and form atoms.

Atoms are the structural units forming all matter configurations existing in the known Universe.

An element is a substance constituted by atoms of the same species; for example, carbon, iron, zinc, calcium, hydrogen, etc. A compound is a substance that is constituted by two or more species of atoms; for example, water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), etc.

From 92 known natural elements, only 25 elements are found in living matter. From those 25 elements, four elements, Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen, are present in 97% of life molecules. The remaining elements represent only 3% of living matter, being Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, and Sulfur the most important.

Molecules that contain Carbon in their structures are called Organic Compounds; for example, Carbon Dioxide, which is formed by one atom of Carbon and two atoms of Oxygen (CO2), is an organic compound. Compounds that have not Carbon in their structures are known as Inorganic Compounds; for example water, which is formed by one atom of Oxygen and two atoms of Hydrogen (H2O).

The main organic compounds are:

a) Carbohydrates
b) Lipids
c) Proteins
d) Nucleic Acids

Biochemistry is the discipline that studies the chemistry of life.

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CARBOHYDRATES

The carbohydrates, or Hydrates of Carbon, are organic molecules constituted by atoms of Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen. Carbohydrates also are called Saccharides, Glycids, or Sugars.

The basic formula for carbohydrates is CH2O. We can distinguish three kinds of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides (one saccharide), Disaccharides (two molecules of saccharide) and polysaccharides (three or more molecules of saccharides).

Monosaccharides are carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed to obtain smaller molecules of saccharide. (Click here to see the structural formulas of Glucose and other Monosaccharides)

Disaccharides are formed by two monosaccharides linked by a glycosidic bond, for example Sucrose (Glucose+Fructose), Maltose (Glucose+Glucose), Lactose (Glucose+Galactose), etc. (click here to see formulas of disaccharides)

Polysaccharides are polymers of saccharides, formed by three or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages, as Amylose (unbranched starch), which is formed exclusively by molecules of Glucose, Amylopectin (branched starch), Glycogen (animal storage polymer), Cellulose, etc. (Click here to see an example of polysaccharide)

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PROTEINS

Proteins constitute more than the 50% of cells' solid matter. Proteins are the more complex and functionally more versatile among biomolecules, as for cell composition, because proteins form structures like membranes, micro fibers, skeletons, cilia, flagellums, etc., as for functions like storage of energy, transportation of other substances, signaling, protection, hormonal functions, etc. Proteins also are a critical part of all metabolic processes because they work as enzymes, which are proteins that selectively accelerate or slow down chemical reactions.

Proteins are formed by sub units called amino acids. Amino acids are organic molecules composed by two groups, one carboxyl group and one amino group. The general formula for an amino acid is as follows:

C2H4O2N-R

R means a chain of one or more atoms of Carbon, which can combine with other elements, as H, O, P and S, but that are not part of the carboxyl group.

Example of aminoacids:

            H    H
     |     |
Amino Group-----> H - N - C - C = O <-----Carboxyl Group
     |     |    |
    H    H    O - H

GLYCINE (Gly)

There are 20 amino acids in nature from which all proteins are built. Polymers constructed by two or more amino acids, joined by peptide bonds, are called polypeptides.

Important proteins for living beings are enzymes, hormones, Collagen, Chlorophyll and Hemoglobin.

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CELLULAR LEVEL

Molecules are highly organized to build structural membranes (organelles), which possess specific functions, according to the materials with which they are formed.

BIOMEMBRANES AND CELL WALLS:

Cells have a watery medium called cytosol that contains the necessary factors for their survival. This internal cellular environment should be maintained segregated from the external environment to avoid the chemical changes that, if that barrier did not exist, would occur spontaneously, ending in the disorganization of the whole system.

The internal environment of the cells should be maintained in a quasi-stable state because the capture energy and its biotransfer are highly specific. If the internal environment of the cell remained unprotected, e.g., when the cell membrane or the cell wall rips open, the cell dies immediately because the compounds disaggregate into the external medium being separated from other biomolecules with which they interact. Besides, many biomolecules change or lose their biotic properties and their organization when remaining exposed to the action of the environmental factors or under unstable conditions. 

All cells have biomembranes that segregate their internal environment from the surroundings. Bacteria have a single membrane and a peripheral wall made of peptidoglycan (proteins + oligosaccharides). Both structures, the membrane and the wall, enclose the cytosol. Some bacteria have an outer single membrane, a transitional wall and an external single membrane. All eukaryotic cells own an external bilayered phospholipidic membrane. The eukaryotic plant cells own the bilayered phospholipidic membrane and an outer cell wall made of cellulose.

The prokaryotic cells do not have membranous organelles, although their membranes have invaginations that extend into the cytosol. Those invaginations determine certain functions, like the secretion of substances and the synthesis of DNA and RNA.

The plasma membrane is constituted by a phospholipidic bi-layer with proteins incrusted through it from outside to inside. Imagine the cell's plasma membrane as an avocado sandwich, in which the two slices of bread are the "heads" (hydrophilic) of the phospholipidic bi-layer, and the avocado represents the "tails" (hydrophobic) of the phospholipidic bi-layer, one layer is fixed to the other by the tails. To complete our sandwich, we insert olives from one side to another, and some fragments of toothpick incrusted in the upper slice and other fragments in the lower slice. Olives represent important protein membrane structures identified as permeases.

Permeases are enzymes that transport substances across the cell membrane, whether forward or outward the cell and they are highly specialized in their function. Besides, cell membranes operate as containers and as a protection for the cytoplasm.

Toothpick fragments represent carbohydrates, glycoproteins, and glycolipids.

The living ingredient of the cell is the cytoplasm.

Cytoplasm is a complex of organic and inorganic substances, mainly proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals and water. These substances are organized to constitute the living organelles, as endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, chloroplasts, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, nucleolus, nucleus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and centrosomes.

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CELL THEORY

1. All living things are constituted by cells.

2. Every cell proceeds from another cell (Biogenesis).

3. The chemical reactions and energy exchanges of an organism, including Biosynthesis, take place into the cell.

4. Each cell contains the total hereditary material (genome), which is donated by mother cells to daughter cells.

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ARE VIRUSES LIVING BEINGS?

Certain thermodynamic systems have provoked polemic in the scientific neighborhood because, under explicit circumstances, they perform some macroscopic functions of living beings. I am referring to viruses, which are particles of nucleic acids contained by a capsule, generally made of proteins, although some RNA viruses, for example some parasitic particles of plants, are uncovered or not contained by a capsid.

The particularity of viruses is that if they are into an abiotic field they would display fixed characteristics of inert beings, since they are not capable of capturing autonomously the energy from the environment to redirect it toward specific metabolic processes or toward definite functions, for example reproduction. Without doubt, when viruses are found in an abiotic field, they are inert beings.

However, when viruses are positioned in an adequate biotic field, whenever that biotic field is compatible with the viruses' genomic sequences, they would be able to replicate themselves taking advantage of the energy and the catalytic molecules from the biotic medium where they progress as parasites.

These are macroscopic characteristics of viruses by which some biologists consider them like living systems, while other biologists consider that viruses are plainly inert systems. 

This is not a matter of dogmas or personal beliefs. Let's analyze the facts in a simple manner to obtain a coherent closure about the energy state of the viruses.

1. Viruses cannot situate autonomously in locations of high energy density fields.

2. The sequence of the genetic material of viruses coincides with the sequence of certain sections of DNA or RNA of host cells, from here that viruses are considered to have been originated as waste-products derived from ancient cells that would be their same host cells today.

3. Viruses do not possess cytosol, for which we have demonstrated that is a phase of matter that can experience the quantum energy state of life.

4. Viruses do not have mitochondria, which are the organelles apt to capture and store energy for redirect it to the execution of the many functions of a real living being.

5. Viruses do not possess plasma membrane or internal membranes, which can perform the proton motile force.

6. Viruses do not possess membranes capable of being excited by collisions with photons to hold the energy released after the collision and after using it in the synthesis of more complex molecules that could store the energy of activation carried by photons.

7. Viruses do not acquire life during their parasitoid stance in the host cells since life cannot be transferred or infused, but viruses are directed by the same host cells to make them to coincide with their own macroscopic characteristics, which have nothing to see with the quantum energy state of life, but with other microstates experimented by autocatalytic molecules (Nucleic Acids, catalytic proteins, enzymes, etc.).

8. The quantum state of life only can be experienced and maintained by a specific array of matter, this is to say, only by completely-incorporated specific positions and movements of the energetic molecules that comprise a cytosol.

THE PLAUSIBLE CLOSURE ON THIS ISSUE IS THAT VIRUSES ARE NOT LIVING BEINGS BECAUSE, BY THEIR MACROSCOPIC MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION, THEY CANNOT EXPERIENCE THE QUANTUM ENERGY STATE OF LIFE.

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IF VIRUSES ARE INERT BEINGS, WHY DO BIOLOGISTS STUDY THEM?

Viruses are inert beings because they are simple particles of nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) wrapped by a capsule of protein that cannot experience life. The proton Motive Force cannot be performed by these particles by the simple reason that they do not possess cell membranes, chloroplasts or mitochondria. If it is so, then, why viruses are included in the studies of microbiology and Biology in general?

The answer is related to the interaction of viruses and living beings. Viruses are structures able to reproduce by themselves under the appropriate conditions, that is to say, when they are placed like guests of living cells.

Viruses can cause the death of their host cells by eliminating, through many systems, the host cells potential to perform the Proton Motile Force, which at last of all is the main characteristic of the quantum energy state of life, be by synthesizing viral proteins, or by destroying the liposome’s membranes, the chloroplasts’ membranes, the mitochondrial membranes, or the whole cell membrane.

Thus, viruses can modify both, the microstructure and macrostructure of their host cells. Then, viruses are non-living organic structures, as it is a molecule of sugar, but they are close-related to living beings, so much by their origin as by the way through they affect to living beings. As well as a molecule of Sugar is a non-living organic being and it is studied by Biology by its importance for living beings, the viruses are included in Biology because they affect to living beings.

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FACTUAL SCIENCES

Factual sciences are those which studies start on the observation of natural facts for elaborating a set of well organized and reliable knowledge.

Factual Sciences are:

Biology, which is defined as the study of life and the beings that experience it.

Physics, which is the science that studies the transformations of the energy and their associations with matter.

Chemistry, which studies the transformations of the matter.

Biology is related to Physics and Chemistry. Also, Physics and Chemistry are related to Biology.

In all biological processes there are transference, storage and no-spontaneous organization of the energy. Therefore, Biology is strictly related to Physics.

The transference of energy, its storage and its function in the living beings depend on substances and chemical reactions. For that reason, Biology is strongly related to Chemistry.

On the other hand, Astronomy, a branch of Physics, has an unavoidable link with living beings because their origin was determined by stars evolution. Each atom of the living beings was originated in a star. The Iron of hemoglobin was generated in the moment when the atomic nuclei of a star fused to form heavier elements; for example Iron. Supernovas, one of the final phases in the evolution of the stars, supplied all the elements found in the Periodic Table of the Elements.

In a star like our Sun, one proton of Hydrogen (mass 1) fuses with another proton of Hydrogen that decays to a neutron creating a nucleus of Deuterium (mass 2). Deuterium possesses one proton and one neutron. Deuterium is one of the nuclei most abundant in a star. When another neutron fuses to a nucleus of Deuterium, the new nucleus will have one proton and two neutrons and it is known as Tritium (mass 3). By this process, the nuclear fusion in the star continues to form Helium, Calcium, Carbon, Oxygen, Iron, etc. However, the heavier elements are not created in young stars, like our Sun, but in the oldest stars that explode like supernovas.

Thus, we can affirm, with a high degree of confidence, that the living beings on Earth were generated by the explosion of one or more supernovas.

Author: Nasif Nahle, biologist

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DEFINITIONIMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGYWHAT IS LIFE?

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING BEINGSINERT AND LIVING BEINGS

BIOLOGICAL AXIOM OR BIOGENESISLEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN BIOLOGY

CHEMISTRY OF LIFE (ORGANIC AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS)CARBON DIOXIDE AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

CARBOHYDRATESFORMULAS OF MONOSACCHARIDESFORMULAS OF DISACCHARIDES

FORMULAS OF POLYSACCHARIDESPROTEINSCELLULAR LEVELCELL THEORY

CLOSURE ON VIRUSES (ARE VIRUSES LIVING BEINGS OR NOT?)SCIENTIFIC METHOD

IF VIRUSES ARE INERT BEINGS, WHY DOES BIOLOGY STUDY THEM?FACTUAL SCIENCES

REFERENCES

OTHER PAGES:METABOLISMSILICON-BASED LIVING BEINGSSWALLOWS (Hirundo rustica)

CONDITIONS FOR THE GENERATION AND SUBSISTENCE OF LIVING BEINGS

BIOLOGICAL DEATHORIGIN OF LIFEVIRUS AND ERYTHROCYTES

PROTON MOTIVE FORCEWHAT IS A BIOTIC FIELD? (ANTIQUACK INFO)
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Nahle, N. (1999).  Biology.  Biology Cabinet. New Braunfels, TX. Obtained on (month) (day), (year) from http://biocab.org/Biology.html.