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Quote: Nahle, N. Intergalactic Cosmic Rays and "Global Warming". November 3, 2005. Journal on line of Biology Cabinet Organization. San Nicolás de los Garza, N. L. México. http://www.biocab.org/Cosmic_Rays_Graph.html
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Cosmic Rays are atomic nuclei (generally protons) and electrons that are observed to collide with the Earth's atmosphere with exceedingly high energies. When these nucleons bump with the atmospheric molecules most of their energy is released as heat, warming up the Earth's atmosphere. As it is shown in this graph, the "Global Warming" is not an anthropogenic event, but a natural cycle related to the energy of the Universe, not with an anomalous Greenhouse Effect. It is evident that the He nucleons (blue line) affect directly on the Earth's temperature variations (red line); however, it looks as if there were not a coincidence between the Intergalactic Cosmic Rays (green line) and the Global Warming Variation (GWV). However, in the graph, below these lines, I transferred the gray line that corresponds to the Intergalactic Cosmic Rays (ICR) just 13.7 months, so you can see the conclusive coincidence between the ICR and the Earth temperature oscillations.

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Data Sources: E. C. Stone, et all. Voyager 1 Explores the Termination Shock Region and the Heliosheat Beyond. Science; Vol. 309, pp. 2017-2020. 23 September 2005. NASA/NOAA. Interpretation: Nasif Nahle © 2005.
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From this graph I concluded that the Intensity of the Intergalactic Cosmic Radiation (ICR) influences on the Terrestrial Tropospheric Temperature. When the Solar Wind collide with the ICR, the nucleons and the electron plasma warms up and reduces their speed of displacement towards the Interstellar space. The energy is stored in the Bow Shock and is released gradually toward the intergalactic space and into the Solar System. In the Termination Shock (TS), the electrons and nucleons of the ICR penetrate upstream into the Solar System through the waves formed by the solar wind (SW) and elude the magnetic turbulences that take place by the movement of the Solar System moving towards the TS. The Intergalactic nucleons with a low Energy Density does not penetrate the Solar System but they are deviated by the magnetic turbulences (Bow Shock) that are formed by the impact between the SW and the ICR; nevertheless, the slow particles with a High Energy Density (hot particles) overcome upstream the SW, they are cooled again, and then they reaccelerate until reaching supersonic speeds (400 km/s) which travel towards the Sun, that is, in the opposite direction toward which the SW is moving. The ICR and the accelerated particles hit against the Earth’s Magnetic Field (EMF). The collision of those particles from the Bow Shock colliding in the EMF promotes the formation of clouds when they penetrate into the Earth's troposphere. Incident particles upon the Earth's surface -incoming from the ICR- increase the temperature of ground and oceans. The heat from the surface is transferred to the lower troposphere and it is warmed up. The intensity of the Intergalactic particles and the cosmic radiation that affect to the Earth depends on the intensity of the SW. If the intensity of the SW is high then the incoming of ICR from the Bow Shock of the Solar System would be higher also. As the SW diminishes its speed, the ICR don't lessen its speed; however, the particles of the ICR aren’t deviated, although they ingress to the Earth where they will communicate its energy to the molecules of the ground and the oceans, warming them up. If the solar activity is intense, then the flow of the cosmic plasma would be more powerful. We will see this correlation in the next histogram:

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GRAPHS:
ADDENDUM (12/23/2009): CONFIRMED!!! THE SOLAR SYSTEM IS CROSSING AN INTERSTELLAR COSMIC CLOUD JUST NOW!!!

1. ANOMALOUS INTENSITY OF COSMIC RAY AND THE NH TROPOSPHERIC ΔT

2. ICR WHEN ARRIVE TO EARTH AFTER A TRIP FROM 84-96AU, AT 400 Km/s

3. HISTOGRAM CONSIDERING THE DISTANCE FROM THE TERMINATION SHOCK TO EARTH

4. TERMINATION SHOCK OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

5. GRAPHS OF THE ICR AND THE GLOBAL TROPOSPHERIC ΔT WITH SMOOTHED LINES

6. SAME INTERVALS OF ICR AND ΔT, A GRAPH

7. HELIUM AND VARIABILITY IN THE TROPOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE

8. COMPARISON BETWEEN TRENDS

9. CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE DEC. 2001 - NOV. 2007 AND CORRELATION WITH THE ICR AND He INTENSITY

10. REFERENCES

11. VERY IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE COSMIC CLOUD CONFIRMED IN 2005 BY VOYAGERS 1 & 2

Update: October 14, 2009. References to ICR nucleons' speeds were added.
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Are there Intergalactic nucleons and radiating energy that can penetrate both, the solar magnetosphere and the terrestrial magnetosphere? Apparently, yes, given that the histogram located above this scheme shows that for each oscillation in the Intensity of the Intergalactic Cosmic Ray, there is an oscillation in the Earth’s tropospheric Temperature (also observed in the Mars atmosphere). Each peak in the energy that has been released in the shock bow corresponds, with a high degree of accuracy, to an elevation in the variability of the terrestrial atmosphere temperature, and most of the decreases in the energy released in the shock bow correspond to a dip in the discrepancy of the Earth’s tropospheric temperature. There are some regions of the histogram that apparently do not correspond with the variability of the terrestrial tropospheric temperature; this obeys to the interference produced by the Solar Activity, which propels gigantic regions of magnetism right through the Sunspots maximums, which protect to Earth, as from the excesses of the Intergalactic Cosmic Radiation as from the local Solar Wind. However, we lack of the whole protection by the periods of minimums in the Solar Activity. The Solar System is orbiting around the Milky Way at a speed of 217.215 Km/s. The Solar System completes one lap around the Milky Way every 226 million years. There is another movement of our Solar System that is upward and downward the plane of the Milky Way (our galaxy). The speed of this oscillation is five kilometers per second.

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Data Source: E. C. Stone, et all. Voyager 1 Explores the Termination Shock Region and the Heliosheat Beyond. Science; Vol. 309, pp. 2017-2020. 23 September 2005. R. B. Decker et all. Voyager 1 in the Foreshock, Termination Shock, and Heliosheat. Science; Vol. 309, pp 2020-2024. 23 September, 2005. NASA. NOAA. Interpretation: Nasif Nahle © November 2005.
Data Source: E. C. Stone, et all. Voyager 1 Explores the Termination Shock Region and the Heliosheat Beyond. Science; Vol. 309, pp. 2017-2020. 23 September 2005. R. B. Decker et all. Voyager 1 in the Foreshock, Termination Shock, and Heliosheat. Science; Vol. 309, pp 2020-2024. 23 September, 2005. NASA. NOAA. Interpretation: Nasif Nahle © November 2005.

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The correlation between the Anomaly in the Intensity of the Intergalactic Cosmic Ray (IICR) and the variations in the terrestrial tropospheric temperature is obvious. The present Global Warming does not depend on the concentration of the Greenhouse Gases, but on the Density of the Energy that is incoming from space, so from the Sun as from the interstellar medium. The blue to green bars represent the anomaly of the tropospheric temperature since December 2001 to October 2007. The red to brown bars represent the IICR on real time when the IICR once they have reached the Earth. Observe that the anomaly at the end of the histogram of the ICR climbs up, with a very few declines. However, we lack data for the months after February 2007. If the intensity of the ICR increases, the next year (2008) will be a warmer year; however, if the intensity of the ICR declines, 2008 will be a normal to colder year. The correlation is just the opposite of Dr. Nir Shaviv's hypothesis.

Some scientists from France have discovered that the Solar System is entering a cloud of anomalous Cosmic Rays (read their article here:
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978ApJ...223..589V).

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Data Source: E. C. Stone, et all. Voyager 1 Explores the Termination Shock Region and the Heliosheat Beyond. Science; Vol. 309, pp. 2017-2020. 23 September 2005. R. B. Decker et all. Voyager 1 in the Foreshock, Termination Shock, and Heliosheat. Science; Vol. 309, pp 2020-2024. 23 September, 2005. NASA. NOAA. Interpretation: Nasif Nahle © November 2005.

On this graph, the smoothed lines were drawn taking into consideration the minimums and maximums of the intensity of the ICR and the variability of the global tropospheric temperature. The explicit correspondence between both lines is unquestionable. I have stuck realistically to the original graphs of both linear graphs, considering the upstream displacement from the ICR through the Solar Wind towards the Sun.

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Without a doubt, the present variability in the tropospheric temperature of Earth is directly attributable to the instability of the intensity of ICR, which include He++ and H+ nucleons and electrons. The long and the short intervals match unexpectedly.

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The intergalactic cosmic Helium particles with energy higher than 70 MeV/nucleon that overcome the solar wind upstream until reach closely to the Sun modify the tropospheric temperature of Earth. On this graph, the blue lines indicate the original intensity of nucleons of Helium at the Bow Shock of our Solar System. This intensity depends directly on Intergalactic Cosmic Radiation (ICR); for that reason I have including the linear graph of the ICR (pink line) as graph noise behind the lines of the intensity of the energy of Helium nucleons. The lapses between the peaks and dips of the Helium line agree accurately with the lapses between the peaks and depressions of the red line correspondent to the terrestrial tropospheric temperature variability (TTTV). I have also included the extrapolative line in the TTTV for the next months consistent with the lines of intensity of the ICR and Helium.

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The trends of the intensity of Intergalactic Cosmic Rays, the Nucleons of Helium of the Intergalactic Cosmic Rays and the Variability of the tropospheric temperature have common characteristics toward the increase. You can see how the three graphs coincide punctually. If you overlap the graph of the concentration of Carbon Dioxide, you will recognize that there is not a tendency towards the increase, but that the line goes up and down but it is almost even. The CO2 graph does not match up with the graph on the variability of the tropospheric temperature. It is deplorable that the climate generated by the Media and the environmentalists only led you to terror.

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Postscript: The graph above this text was added on October 21, 2007, and the paragraph in blue was corrected on November 10, 2007.

As indicated previously, the intensity of ICR, the He nucleons energy and the variability of the tropospheric temperature has been unusually high through 2006 and the first two months of 2007. In the extension of the tropospheric temperatures, we observe high temperatures for January, February, November and December in 2006, but there were not higher than the registered through 1998. On this graph we observe that the change of temperature through January and February in 2007 was higher than through 2006; however, the rest of the year the change of temperature was normal. You can see that the anomalous intensity of Interstellar Cosmic Rays, which reached its maximum intensity through January-February 2007, promoted high ranks of cloudiness and more frequent, long and copious rainfall through January-November 2007. The Intensity of the Solar Irradiance was very low and the Sun remained spotless almost the year long, which coincides with the theory of Dr. Henrik Svensmark about the influence of the Solar Irradiance on cloudless days.

The next text was written on December 05, 2006: This year has been the coldest year of the decade. It seems to be that finally the global tropospheric temperatures are being standardized. This confirms that the fluctuations of the terrestrial temperature (and of all planets of the Solar System) are cyclical and that are caused by other sidereal systems outside the Earth. There is no Global Warming due to human activities.

Responsible of this page: Nasif Nahle

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ARE OLD DISCOVERIES OUT OF DATE?

Some people have criticized the last reference of this section just because it is a paper published in 1978. We have included many recent papers, but they dismiss them just because are recent papers confirming the discovery of Dr. Alfred Vidal-Madjar. Even if there were not "recent" reports confirming Dr. Vidal-Madjar's discovery, the science would accept it as actual and valid because there are not papers showing that he was wrong. I should give you an example on the wrongness of the claims of those that don't like old scientific information. Would you dismiss the General Theory of Relativity, described by Albert Einstein just because it was published in 1916? Would you dismiss the Laws of Thermodynamics because they were described by Dr. Van Ness in 1969? Would you discard the cellular theory just because Robert Hooke published his discovery in 1665? I am sure you are shaking your head. The academic and the scientific rule is, if the discovery is confirmed through time and no other scientists discover the contrary or the wrongness of a theory, the discovery or the theory will continue be valid. No matter if the discovery or the theory were made 14,000 years ago.


REFERENCES:

E. C. Stone et all. Voyager Explores the Termination Shock Region and the Heliosheat Beyond. Science; Vol. 309, pages 2017 - 2020. 23. September 2005.

D. A. Gurnett and W. S. Kurth. Electron Plasma Oscillations Upstream of the Solar Wind Termination shock. Science; Vol. 309, pages 2025 - 2027. 23. September 2005.

R. B. Decker et all. Voyager 1 in the Foreshock, Termination Shock, and Heliosheat. Science; Vol. 309, pp 2020-2024. 23 September, 2005.

The Sun Does a Flip. NASA's Website:
http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast15feb_1.htm.
Last reading on November 8th, 2005.

Cracks in Earth's Magnetic Shield. NASA's Website:
http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/03dec_magneticcracks.htm
Last reading on November 7th, 2005.

The Solar Wind at Mars. NASA's Website:
http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast31jan_1.htm
Last reading on October 28, 2005.

Who's Afraid of a Solar Flare? NASA's Website:
http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2005/07oct_afraid.htm
Last reading on November 3rd, 2005.

Common Misconceptions about Global Warming.  Friends of Science's Website:
http://www.friendsofscience.org/index.php?ide=4
Last reading on October 18, 2005.

a) The Latest 48 hours of Solar Wind Data.  SOHO's Website:
http://umtof.umd.edu/pm/
Last reading on November 13, 2005.

b) The Latest 48 hours of Solar Flare Activity. SOHO's Website:
http://umtof.umd.edu/pm/flare/
Last reading on November 13, 2005.

Svensmark, H., Pedersen, Jens Olaf P., Marsh, Nigel D., Engoff, Martin B., Uggerhoj, Ulrik I. Experimental evidence for the role of ions in particle nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Proc. R. Soc. A (2007) 463, 385–396. Published online 3 October 2006.

Is the Solar System Entering a Nearby Interstellar Cosmic Cloud? Vidal-Madjar, A.; Laurent, C.; Bruston, P.; Audouze, J. The Astrophysical Journal. Vol. 223; pp. 589-600. July 15, 1978. Website: http://adsabs.harvard.edu. Last reading on December 05, 2006.

REFERENCES TO ICR NUCLEONS' SPEEDS WHICH WERE ADDED ON 14 OCTOBER 2009:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/r859j7h615847218/

http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/0004-637X/663/2/1335/64527.web.pdf

http://jpsj.ipap.jp/link?JPSJS/78SA/52/pdf

http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/RTSWdata.html

http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu

http://space.umd.edu/voyager/Hill2004IGPP.pdf

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6962/full/nature02066.html

http://www.iop.org


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