DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN THE THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION PRESSURE AND THE DOWNWELLING RADIATION HYPOTHESIS.
Scientific Research Director at Biology Cabinet
May 12, 2010
Nahle, N. Disagreement Between the Theory of Electromagnetic Radiation Pressure and the Downwellin Radiation Hypothesis. 8 July 2010. Biology Cabinet at San Nicolas de los Garza, N. L.
Through simple calculations of the Electromagnetic Radiation Pressure (Pemr) (4) exerted by the three systems implied in the thermal energy transfer, i.e. the Sun, the Earth’s atmosphere and the Earth’s surface, I demonstrate that the down-welling radiation hypothesis divulged by the proponents of the anthropogenic global warming (2) and the energy budget proposed by Kiehl and Trenberth (1) are incompatible with the laws of thermodynamics.
The Electromagnetic Radiation Pressure (Pemr) is defined as the force per unit area exerted by a photon stream produced by a thermodynamic system (designated the source) upon the surface of another system (designated the target). (5)
For the thermodynamic system comprised by the Sun and the Earth, the main sources of photons are the solar photon stream, originated in the Sun’s surface, and the surface photon stream, originated in the Earth’s surface.
The thermodynamic system Earth is formed by other subsystems, specifically, cryosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. (6) The four thermodynamic subsystems have an effect on and are affected by the Earth’s climate. The bulk part of the energy involved in Earth’s climate system is provided by the Sun. (6) (7)
In the last years, the proponents of the anthropogenic global warming have struggled against the second law of thermodynamics because it contradicts the main argument of their hypothesis, which argues that the energy emitted by the atmosphere heats up the surface. (1) (2) (8) (9) (10)
However, this idea of a downwelling radiation that heats up the surface enters in obvious conflict with the Astrophysics, thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. The conflict is so serious that many attempts of nullifying the second law of thermodynamics have been perpetrated by the anthropogenic global warming proponents (11).
Other authors have gone out from the scientific standards by confusing the real concept of the second law of thermodynamics. Those authors declare that the second law of thermodynamics does not settle on that hot systems cannot be warmed up by colder systems, i.e. they claim, through odd syllogisms without experimental or observational support, that a thermodynamic system in a high energy density state can increase its internal energy by means of absorbing energy emitted by another system in a low energy density state (12). Obviously, those are ambiguous and pseudoscientific arguments.
Is on the last observation that I decided to resort to thermodynamics, heat transfer physics and quantum mechanics for demonstrating the falseness of the idea that the downwelling radiation emitted by the atmosphere heats up the surface of the Earth.
The macroscopic directionality of the flow of the energy is easily observed everywhere in daily life. For example, if we have a metallic rod with one of its ends applied over a heat source, after some time, the end of the rod which is far from the source of heat -the colder extreme- will be warmed up.
We found another subtler example, but more useful than the previous example given the objective of this article, when we blow up a balloon with smoke, the smoke will exert an internal pressure on the walls of the balloon causing that the internal pressure of the balloon is greater than the pressure of the air upon the balloon walls. When we pierce the globe, the smoke escapes by the orifice and disperses in the atmosphere until disappearing from sight. This means that the pressure is also exerted following the universal directionality from denser states to less dense states. (3)
In 1871, James Clerk Maxwell discovered theoretically the statistical probability of the existence of the Electromagnetic Radiation Pressure (Pemr) (13). In 1901, Pyotr Nikolayevich Lebedev confirmed in laboratory the irrefutable existence of the Pemr (14), and in 1901, E. F. Nichols and G. F. Hull (15) verified Maxwell’s theory and Lebedev’s experimental results.
The Pemr is exerted by all streams of energy radiated by any thermodynamic system and you can measure it everywhere in the universe, with the appropriate instruments, e.g. Torsion Balance. (18)
Obtaining the Pemr exerted by thermodynamic systems implied in the Earth's climate.
<<Addendum on 20 July 2010--- The formula to determine the Electromagnetic Radiation Pressure (Pemr) of a photon stream is as follows:
Pemr = S/c (Ref. 4 and 5)
Where Pemr is Electromagnetic Radiation Pressure, S is for the intensity of the radiation emitted by the energy source expressed in (N * m/s) /m^2, and c is the speed of light expressed in m/s.>> (End of addendum).
1. Determination of the Pemr exerted by the solar photon stream on the Earth’s surface:
The Pemr of the solar photon stream upon Earth’s surface (target) is:
Pemr Sun = ΦESun / c (Ref. 4, 5, 15, 16, 18)
Where ΦESun is the flux of the solar energy radiation per square meter and c is 2.99909301 x 10^8 (m/s).
The solar power received by the Earth at the upper atmosphere is 1365.5 ((N * m/s) /m^2). The total power reflected by the upper atmosphere, the clouds and the surface of the Earth is approximately 31%. Thus, the total incident solar power on the surface of the Earth is:
Pemr Sun = 1365.5 ((N * m/s) /m^2) / (1.31) = 943.575 ((N * m/s) /m^2.
Therefore, the Pemr by the incident solar radiation upon the Earth’s surface is:
Pemr Sun = 943.575 ((N * m/s) /m^2)/ 2.99909301 x 10^8 (m/s) = 1.6045 x 10^-6 N/m^2 (4)
Also, 1.6045 x 10^-6 N/m^2 = 1.6045 μPa
And 1.083 μPa = 1.58351 × 10^-11 atm
Consequently, the Pemr of the solar radiation is 1.58351 × 10^-11 atm.
2. Determination of the Pemr exerted by the atmospheric mixture of absorbent gases (Ga), including the carbon dioxide but excluding the water vapor, upon any target:
Considering only the mixture of atmospheric absorbent gases (Ga), including the carbon dioxide but excluding the water vapor, from the whole mixture of gases in the atmosphere, the Pemr exerted by the photon stream originated by the Ga is:
32 ((N * m/s) /m^2) / 2.99909301 x 10^8 (m/s) = 1.07 x 10^-7 N/m^2 = 0.1067 μPa
Pemr Ga = 0.107 μPa = 1.053 × 10^-12 atm
Therefore, the Pemr exerted by the solar photon stream is 15 times higher than the Pemr exerted by the atmospheric mixture of absorbent gases, including the carbon dioxide and excluding the water vapor.
3. Determination of the Pemr exerted by the atmospheric photon stream, including 5% of water vapor, upon any target:
Pemr atm =146.35 ((N * m/s) /m^2)/ 2.99909301 x 10^8 (m/s) = 4.88 x 10^-7 N/m^2 = 0.488 μPa (4)
Pemr atm = 0.488 μPa = 4.82 × 10^-12 atm
Therefore, the Pemr exerted by the solar photon stream is 3 times higher than the EMRP exerted by the whole mixture of gases in the atmosphere.
4. Determination of the Pemr exerted by the atmospheric carbon dioxide photon stream, upon any target:
Pemr CO2 = 10.2 ((N * m/s) /m^2)/ 2.99909301 x 10^8 (m/s) = 3.4 x 10^-8 N/m^2 = 0.034 μPa (4)
Pemr CO2 = 0.034 μPa = 3.355 × 10^-13 atm
Consequently, the contribution of the carbon dioxide to the Pemr exerted by the whole atmosphere upon any target is barely of 7%. The Pemr created by the whole atmosphere, excluding the fraction exerted by the carbon dioxide, is 14 times higher than the Pemr exerted by the carbon dioxide alone.
5. Determination of the Pemr exerted by the surface photon stream upon any target:
Alternatively, the surface photon stream is:
ΦEsurface = 315.383 ((N * m/s) /m^2)
The total power exerted by the surface towards the atmosphere is as follows:
Ptot surface = P emitted + P reflected = 277.64 ((N * m/s) /m^2) + 37.743 ((N * m/s) /m^2)
Ptot surface = 315.383 ((N * m/s) /m^2).
Therefore, the photon stream radiation pressure from the surface to the atmosphere is:
Pemr surface = 315.383 ((N * m/s) /m^2) / 2.99909301 x 10^8 (m/s) = 1.052 x 10^-6 N/m^2 =
= 1.052 μPa.
Pemr surface = 0.926 μPa = 1.038 × 10^-11 atm
Therefore, the Pemr exerted by the surface photon stream is ~2 times higher than the Pemr exerted by the whole atmosphere, and the Pemr of the solar photon stream is ~1.5 times higher than the Pemr exerted by the surface photon stream. The Pemr exerted by the surface on any target is 32 times higher than the Pemr exerted by the carbon dioxide alone.
On the other hand, the surface exerts a Pemr 27 times higher than the Pemr exerted by the atmospheric mixture of absorbent gases, including the carbon dioxide and excluding the water vapor.
Finally, the Pemr exerted by the solar photon stream upon any target is 32 times higher than the Pemr exerted by the carbon dioxide alone upon any target.
The photons of the solar photon stream always flow towards the surface, because the surface has a lower Pemr than the solar photon stream.
Conversely, the photons of the surface photon stream always flow towards the atmosphere, which has a lower Pemr than the surface photon stream (the absolute pressure exerted by the atmospheric carbon dioxide photon stream is 3.355 × 10^-13 atm).
If one understand the diagram on the Earth’s energy budget by Kiehl and Trenberth (1) exactly as it is said, the pressure exerted by both the surface’s and the atmosphere’s photon streams would be equal, so the Pemr would be in thermodynamic equilibrium and there would not be any interchange of photons between the two systems. As a result, the temperature of the surface would be the same temperature than that of the air. This is Trenberth’s travesty phenomenon better described as pseudoscience.
Although the magnitude of the natural Pemr is small, it explains unquestionably why the warming of the surface by the downwelling radiation emitted by the atmosphere is physically impossible.
Once again, correct physics contradicts the allegations of the proponents of the anthropogenic global warming due to a downwelling radiation emitted by the "greenhouse" gases and also demystifies the allegations that the second law of thermodynamics is imaginary.
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES:
1. Kiehl, J. T. and Trenberth, Kevin E. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Vol. 78; No. 2; February 1997. Pp. 197-208.
2. Pavlakis, K. G., Hatzidimitriou, D., C. Matsoukas, Drakakis, E., Hatzianastassiou, N., Vardavas, I. Ten-year Global Distribution of Downwelling Longwave Radiation. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 3, pp. 5099–5137, 2003.
3. Nelson, B., Rayne, E., Bembenek, S. The Second Law of Thermodynamics.
4. Lang, Kenneth. 2006. Astrophysical Formulae. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Vol. 1. Sections 1.11 and 1.12.
5. Maoz, Dan. Astrophysics in a Nutshell. 2007. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. Pp. 36-41
6. Peixoto, José P., Oort, Abraham H. 1992. Physics of Climate. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. New York.
7. Odum, Eugene P. and Barrel, Gary W. Fundamentos de Ecología-Quinta Edición.2006. International Thompson Editores, S. A. de C. V. México, Distrito Federal.