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CLOSURE ON GLOBAL WARMING
INDEXABOUT USE-MAIL USESTA PÁGINA EN ESPAÑOL
EXPLANATION OF THE TABLE:

I have applied the laws of thermodynamics to assess scientifically the real impact of human beings on the "Global Warming" by the emission of the so called "greenhouse gases".

The total change in the density of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere has been of 180 ppmv since 1850 AD. From this quantity, the human activities are responsible only of 4.77 ppmv; the remainder, 175.23 ppmv, is owed to natural processes.

The total change in the density of Carbon Dioxide would increase the tropospheric temperature (TT) by only 0.03 K, which presents a discrepancy of – 0.49 K from the observed real change in the Tropospheric Temperature. From the increase of 0.03 K, human activities are responsible only of 0.000795 K.

If we take the observed water steam (the correct name is “steam”) into account, but dismissing the increase in CO2, then the steam will be only of 0.15 K. The discrepancy respect the observed Variability in the Tropospheric Temperature (VTT) is of 0.37 K. This discrepancy is not admissible since water vapor is 99.99% natural, thus, the human activities are responsible only of 0.000015 K. This calculus -strictly adhered to the laws of thermodynamics- demonstrates that so far, CO2 and steam are not responsible of the observed increase in the VTT. The beauty of science is that it does not rely on consensus but on facts. These are facts.

If we integrate the effect of the increase of steam in the VTT to the effect of the increase of CO2 in the VTT, we get only 0.18 K which differs by 0.34 K from the observed (real) VTT. So far, both gases are not responsible of the real change in the tropospheric temperature, which has been of 0.52 K through 150 years. The responsibility of humans in the total increase in the VTT by CO2 and steam is only of 0.00081 K.

Now, I applied the algorithm to the increase in the Solar Irradiance, demonstrated by Judith Lean in 2004 for NOAA and NASA. The derived change in the TT by the increase in the Solar Irradiance since 1611 AD is of 0.57 K, which presents a discrepancy with respect to the observed VTT of only 0.05 K. The discrepancy is so minimal that it is scientifically acceptable like the cause of the VTT.

Finally, I integrated linearly the increase of Interstellar Cosmic Rays (ICR) to the increase of Solar Irradiance and I obtained 0.74 K since 1611 AD. The discrepancy between the integral and the observed (proxy + thermometers) temperature is only of 0.12 K. This result is very close to the observed VTT since 1611 AD and it is scientifically up to standard.

Closure: VTT is that the impact of human beings in the “global warming” is negligible and that the real scientific data exempts to the human beings of any responsibility in the natural phenomenon.

Extrapolation: If the density of CO2 does not increase up to 5,000 ppmv and the change in the density of steam remains constant, the probable increase in the tropospheric temperature by the Cosmic Radiation alone could be of 1.62 K in 393 years.

The Algorithm is described below the table.

If you want to believe in lies, believe in consensus and politicians. If you want to believe in truth, believe in science and in no-politicized scientists. If you want that your descendants survive to these natural phenomena, teach them to save water and energy, teach them on how to avoid the heat stroke, teach them to reforest from their own gardens. Teach them to be good children of Nature.

Nasif Nahle
Biologist

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WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE THERMAL PROPERTIES

You can check with advanced text books on Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics to confirm the data that I have provided you through this article. For values related with conduction and convection, you can interpolate from tables about heat transfer published in several books of Physics.

Water and carbon dioxide are obligatorily essential compounds for all living beings on Earth. Without water, the living systems could not make a single one of their metabolic functions. On the other hand, without carbon dioxide, the living beings would not have food to subsist.

For those reasons, and by many more, it is extremely important for we to know the thermal properties of these two compounds and to know the science behind "global warming", to avoid committing serious mistakes like the uncontrolled deforestation and the over-sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere through advanced technologies.

For values related with conduction and convection, you can interpolate from tables about heat transfer published in several Physics books. For radiation heat transfer you have to apply the formula for the Law of Stephan-Boltzmann. In this document, the term steam is always applied to water vapor; vapor is a term adequate for all gases.

Thermal conductivity or capability to transfer heat by conduction (k):

CO2 = 0.016572 W/m.K (at P = 1 atm and T = 300 K).
Steam = 0.0246 W/m.K (at P = 1.060 atm and T = 380 K).

Specific Heat or the capability to hold heat (Cp):

CO2 = 0.85 kJ/Kg. K
Steam = 2.060 kJ/Kg.K

Emissivity or the capability of absorb and transfer heat (Є)

CO2 = 0.175 W/m.K
Steam = 0.95 W/m.K

As we can see from this data, steam is more efficient to absorb, emit, hold and transfer heat. Carbon Dioxide is not as efficient as we have been told through Media. Evidently, we are not responsible of the increase in the atmospheric steam.

For example, taken into account the thermal properties of the gases and their respective densities (concentration) in the atmosphere the change produced by them in the atmospheric temperature is as follows:

The change in the atmospheric temperature by 184 ppmv of CO2, which is the current increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, is 0.0345 C. As a comparison, the total change in the atmospheric temperature given in the last 400 years has been 0.62 C. Thus, CO2 cannot be the culprit of the “global warming”.

The change in the atmospheric temperature by 1747 ppmv of Steam (water vapor), which is the current concentration of steam in the atmosphere, is 0.15 C. The atmospheric temperature variability in 400 years has been 0.62 C. Then, H2O cannot be the cause of the “global warming”.

Formulas applied for the calculi:

For Δ Q by radiation: Q/A = e σ (T*4 – Ts*4).
For Δ Q by conduction (from air to ground): Q/A = -k (∂ T/∂ Tn).
For Δ Q by convection (by fluid currents): Q/A = / A = h (Ts – T∞).
For Δ Q to Δ T: Δ T = Q / m*Cp.

FACTS :

From 1999 to 2007 the increase in the density of atmospheric Carbon Dioxide has been about 3 ppmv. This is an exiguous quantity that has been attributed to the human activities. There are two facts derived from this finding:

1. From 3 ppmv, only 0.0795 ppmv has been released by human activities. Scientists of the National Academy of Sciences have found that the human beings only are culprit of 2.65% of the total amount of atmospheric CO2.
2. The change in the atmospheric temperature by the increase of 3 ppmv is negligible.
3. If human activities were the cause of the increase of 180 ppmv of CO2 through 150 years, then the increase in the density of CO2 in the atmosphere would be more than 17 ppmv, not 0.0795 ppmv.

Obviously, human activities are not the cause of the increase in CO2 atmospheric density.

Nasif Nahle
Biologist

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 775. Lewis, M. W. The Flight from Science and Reason-Radical Environmental Philosophy and the Assault on Reason. Editors: Paul R. Gross, Norman Levitt and Martin W. Lewis. 1996. New York, NY.

Baliunas, S. and Soon, W. Climate History and the Sun. 2001. George C. Marshall Institute. Washington, D. C. http://www.marshall.org/pdf/materials/90.pdf. Last review on December 18, 2006.

Nelson, B., Rayne, E., Bembenek, S. The Second Law of Thermodynamics.
http://www.physlink.com/Education/AskExperts/ae261 .cfm?CFID=8941463&CFTOKEN=77570068

Peixoto, Jose P. and Oort, Abraham H. Physics of Climate. 1992. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. New York, NY.

Pitts, Donald and Sissom, Leighton. Heat Transfer.  1997. McGraw Hill. New York, NY.

Potter, Merle C. and Somerton, Craig W. Thermodynamics for Engineers. 1993. McGraw Hill. New York, NY.

Van Ness, H. C. Understanding Thermodynamics. 1969. McGraw Hill. New York, NY.

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This Website created and kept up by Nasif Nahle et al.
Copyright© 2007 by Biology Cabinet Organization
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
INDEXABOUT USE-MAIL USESTA PÁGINA EN ESPAÑOL
EXPLANATION OF THE TABLE

WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE THERMAL PROPERTIES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PUBLISHED: January 08, 2007UPDATE: March 03, 2007

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