WARNING: THE PUBLICATION OF THIS PAGE CONCLUDES TODAY, OCTOBER 30, 2005, REASON BY WHICH, IT WILL NOT BE ADDED MORE MATERIAL TO THIS SERIES OF GRAPHS. THE ADDITIONAL MATERIAL THAT COULD BE NECESSARY WILL BE ADDED THROUGH THE PUBLICATION OF NEW PAGES.

AS ALWAYS, WE REQUEST ABSOLUTE RESPECT TO THE COPYRIGHTS OF BIOLOGY CABINET AND THIRD INSTITUTIONS AND/OR THIRD PEOPLE, AND TO THE AUTHOR’S RIGHT ON THE INTERPRETATIONS OF THE GRAPHS MADE BY THE PERSONNEL OF BIOLOGY CABINET.

ANY PERSON WHO INCURRED INTO PLAGIARISM OF ANY OF THE GRAPHS OR INTERPRETATIONS OF BIOLOGY CABINET, THIRD PARTIES, THIRD INSTITUTIONS OR THIRD AUTHORS, INDEPENDENT FROM BIOLOGY CABINET, COULD INCUR INTO A SERIOUS CRIME SANCTIONED BY THE INTERNATIONAL LAWS OF COPYRIGHT AND AUTHOR’S INTELLECTUAL RIGHTS.

THESE GRAPHS CAN BE USED FREELY FOR ACADEMIC AIMS, FOR DISSERTATION, INVESTIGATION AND PUBLIC DEBATES, AS LONG AS YOU ASK IN WRITING FOR PERMISSION TO BIOLOGY CABINET AND TO INDEPENDENT AUTHORS, AND EVER WHEN YOU MENTION CLEARLY THE SOURCE FROM WHERE THE INFORMATION WAS TAKEN. BIOLOGY CABINET WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MISGUIDED OR CRIMINAL UTILIZATION OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS PAGE AND IN THE WHOLE BIOLOGY CABINET’S WEBSITE AND BIOLOGY CABINET WILL ACT LEGALLY WITH RIGOR AGAINST THE PLAGIARISTS OF THIS MATERIAL.

NASIF NAHLE
COUNCIL LEADERSHIP/BIOLOGY CABINET ®

®
®
COMPARATIVE GRAPHIC ON GLOBAL WARMING
®
HOMEABOUT USCONTACTDISCLAIMERESPAÑOL
COPYRIGHT© 2005 BY NASIF NAHLE.
All Rights Reserved.
Biology Cabinet Organization ® 1997.
CLICK ON THE GRAPHIC TO SEE AN ENHANCED IMAGE.

The Graphics clearly shows that there is not a link between the Global Warming and the increase of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere.

BACK TO TOP ^^

CLICK ON THE GRAPHIC TO SEE AN UPDATED IMAGE.

The Graphics evidently shows that there is not a link between the Global Warming and the increase of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere (brown undashed line); instead, we can see a clear relation between Solar Activity (green undashed line) and Global Warming (blue undashed line). In 1998, the anomaly in the tropospheric temperature correlates with 87 X-solar flares. August 2005 was a normal month, but September was not because the Earth was bombarded with 17 X-Solar Flares, when the sunspots activity was at its minimum. Actually, the trend in the Solar Activity has increased by a decadal rate of 0.05 Wm e-2, totalizing 0.125 Wm e-2 by the last two and a half decades. The discovery of NASA coincides with the trend in the variability of the Global Tropospheric Temperature towards the end of the past two and a half decades (being of 0.123° C). Generally speaking, there is more radiation received by Earth from Sun. Without a doubt, the current Global Warming is not a human-made event, but a natural and cyclical phenomenon. The two gray dashed lines show the real coincidence between the trend of both variables. (See graphs at NASA.GOV and graphs on Intergalactic Cosmic Rays in the BIOCAB's Website).

BACK TO TOP ^^
HOMEABOUT USCONTACTESPAÑOL
CLICK ON THE GRAPHIC TO SEE AN ENHANCED IMAGE.

This Graph shows that there have been many periods warmer than the present Global Warming. Actually, our Global Warming is benign compared with prehistoric warming eras. I want you to pay attention on the Ordovician period. During this period, the atmospheric CO2 reached 355 ppmv (almost 25 ppmv lower than at present); nevertheless, the mean temperature diminished considerably as to produce a Glacial Age. Also, see how through the Triassic Period occurred a period warmer than the current period, but the CO2 concentration was lower than at present. Evidently, there are other factors more effective than CO2 that are the factual root of Global Warming on Earth. (To verify data on Paleocene CO2: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/309/5734/600/FIG3). We have to considere that the input of Methane during the paleocene was about 1500 gigatons.

BACK TO TOP ^^
GRAPHICS:

COMPARISON: MEDIEVAL PERIOD AND PRESENTCOMPARISON: OSCILLATION IN TEMPERATURE AND CO2

COMPARISON: GLOBAL WARMING AND SOLAR ACTIVITYGEOLOGICAL TIMESCALE AND TEMPERATURES

SOLAR FLARES AND EL NIÑO OSCILLATIONRECOVERY OF THE ANTARCTIC ICESHEETCOSMIC RAYS IMPLIED?REFERENCES

CLOSURE ON "GLOBAL WARMING"
CLICK ON THE GRAPHIC TO SEE AN ENHANCED IMAGE.

The global temperature is represented by the green solid line, whereas the temperature of the Oscillation of the El Niño South Pacific Oscillation (ENSO) is represented by the red solid line. The variation in the Tropospheric concentration of CO2 is represented by the dashed brown line. The maximums and minimums in the solar activity are represented by the dashed blue line; whereas the type-X solar brilliances are represented by the orange circles. It is clear that El Niño influences in the global tropospheric temperature and not in the inverse way because the maximum variations in the temperature of ENSO happen months or years before the variations in the tropospheric temperature. The atmospheric CO2 does not seem to be related with ENSO variations; whereas the solar activity seems to have a direct influence.

BACK TO TOP ^^
CLICK ON THE GRAPHIC TO SEE AN ENHANCED IMAGE.

The measurements of the Altimeter Radar Satellite indicate that the Eastern Antarctic ice shield is increasing its mass in near 48 billion metric tons per year since 1992. The increase in mass is associated with an increase in the snowfalls. The raise is enough as to stop the increase in the sea level by near 0,14 mm. by year.

BACK TO TOP ^^
CLICK ON THE GRAPH TO SEE AN ENHANCED IMAGE.

Comparison between the change in the global temperature (red line), the Carbon Dioxide Concentration (blue line), and the sample tree ring (green line) from 800 AD to 2005 (AD). As you can see, what took only 150 years during the Medieval Period of Global Warming has taken 200 years in our Industrial Era. This means that the current Global Warming is rising SLOWER than during the Medieval Age. Besides, our Global Warming is LOWER than that of the Medieval Period. A further characteristic is that the warmest phase in the Medieval Period lasted about 190 years, whereas the warmest period of the contemporary Global Warming lasted merely 3 years (from 1997 to 1998), with its highest point in 1998. This evidence demonstrates that the Global Warming is a cyclic natural phenomenon. Where is the scientific evidence against this?

BACK TO TOP ^^
CLICK ON THE GRAPHIC TO SEE AN ENHANCED IMAGE.

Is there an association between the tropospheric Δ T and the Intensity of the Intergalactic Cosmic Ray (IICR)? The superposition of the graph on the oscillations in the Tropospheric temperature to compare it with the graph on the Intensity of Cosmic Rays (IICR) that collide with the solar wind, in the Termination Shock zone of the Solar System, seems to demonstrate a direct correlation between the variations of the tropospheric temperature and the IICR. In addition, it could be that the anomaly of the ICR is causing the anomalies observed in the radiating activity of the Sun. FOR A DEEPER REVIEW ON THIS SUBJECT, READ OUR ARTICLE ON THE CORRELATION OF ICR WITH THE TERRESTRIAL GLOBAL WARMING.

This page elaborated by Nasif Nahle

BACK TO TOP ^^


REFERENCES:

Eric Rignot and Robert H. Thomas. Mass Balance of Polar Ice Sheets. Science, Vol. 297, Issue 5586, 1502-1506, 30 August 2002.

Curt H. Davis, Yonghong Li, Joseph R. McConnell, Markus M. Frey, Edward Hanna. Snowfall-Driven Growth in East Antarctic Ice Sheet Mitigates Recent Sea-Level Rise. Science, Vol. 308, Issue 5730, 1898-1901, 24 June 2005.

Ola M. Johannessen, Kirill Khvorostovsky, Martin W. Miles, Leonid P. Bobylev. Recent Ice-Sheet Growth in the Interior of Greenland. Published online: October 20 2005; 10.1126/Science.1115356. Science Express Reports: www.sciencexpress.org / 20 October 2005 / Page 5/ 10.1126/science.1115356

Sea Ice Decline Intensifies. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), a part of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder; NASA; and the University of Washington. NSIDC. 28 September, 2005.

Thomas L. Delworth, Thomas R. Knutson. Simulation of Early 20th Century Global Warming. Science, Vol. 287, Issue 5461, 2246-2250, 24 March 2000.

R. B. Alley et al. Abrupt Climate Change. Science, Vol. 299, Issue 5615, 2005-2010, 28 March 2003.

Santo Bains, Richard M. Corfield, Richard D. Norris. Mechanisms of Climate Warming at the End of the Paleocene. Science. Vol. 285. Issue 5428, pp. 724 - 727; 30 July 1999.

Richard A. Kerr. CLIMATE CHANGE: A Few Good Climate Shifters. Science, Vol. 306, Issue 5696, 599-601, 22 October 2004.

Thomas R. Karl, Kevin E. Trenberth. Modern Global Climate Change. Science, Vol. 302, Issue 5651, 1719-1723, 5 December 2003.

Lean J., Bear J., Bradley R. Reconstruction of Solar Irradiance since 1610 - Implications for Climate – Change. Geophysical Research Letters 22 (23). Pp. 3195-3198, December 1st., 1995.

Drew T. Shindell et al. Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum. Science, Vol. 294, Issue 5549, 2149-2152, 7 December 2001.

Seong-Joong Kim, Thomas J. Crowley, Achim Stössel. Local Orbital Forcing of Antarctic Climate Change during the Last Interglacial. Science, Vol. 280, Issue 5364, 728-730, May 1st. 1998.

Gerald E. Marsh. A Global Warming Primer. National Policy Analysis, No. 361, September 2001. The National Center for Public Policy Research.

M. L. Khandekar, T. S. Murty, P. Chittibabu. The Global Warming Debate: A Review of the State of Science. Pure Applied geophysics, Vol. 162, 1557–1586. 2005.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Lacis, A., and Ruedy, R. The Missing Climate Forcing. Phil Trans. R. Soc. London. 352, 231–240. 1997.

Reed P. Scherer, Ala Aldahan, Slawek Tulaczyk, Göran Possnert, Hermann Engelhardt, Barclay Kamb. Pleistocene Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science, Vol. 281, Issue 5373, 82-85, 3 July 1998.

Sharon L. Kanfoush, David A. Hodell, Christopher D. Charles, Thomas P. Guilderson, P. Graham Mortyn, Ulysses S. Ninnemann. Millennial-Scale Instability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet During the Last Glaciation. Science, Vol. 288, Issue 5472, 1815-1819, 9 June 2000.

NASA’S SITE:

Who's Afraid of a Solar Flare? October 7, 2005. NASA’s site.

Solar Minimum Explodes. Solar minimum is looking strangely like Solar Max. September 15, 2005. NASA’s site.

The Biggest Explosions in the Solar System. February 6, 2002. NASA’s site.

Solar Event Reports -last 60 days. NOAA’s site:

http://www.sec.noaa.gov/ftpdir/plots/xray/20050907_xray.gif, http://www.sec.noaa.gov/ftpdir/plots/xray/20050908_xray.gif

Schmidt/Miller, NASA GISS/Universidad de Columbia, NYAS, Nueva York, NY. 2004

Climate Change on Mars:

http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mgs/newsroom/20050920a.html

UP TO TOP ^^