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Nahle, N. Didactic Article: Induced Emission and Heat Stored. 21 May 2009. Biology Cabinet Organization. http://www.biocab.org/Induced_Emission.html

The author recommends you to read his article "Heat" for disambiguation of the scientific concept.

Induced Emission and Heat Stored by Air, Water and Dry Clay Soil.
Nasif Nahle

Scientific Research Director of Biology Cabinet Organization. Residencial El Roble, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. CP 66414.

(Additional editing of this English text by TS) Updated: 18 October 2011. Typos corrected.

Abstract: In this paper, I have resorted to basic formulas obtained from experimentation and observation by several scientists for calculating the heat stored by any substance and the subsequent change of temperature caused on a determined system. I demonstrate that the climate of Earth is driven by the oceans, the ground surface and the subsurface materials of the ground. I explain also how the photon streams from oceans, ground and subsurface materials of ground overwhelm the emission of photons from the atmosphere to the ground during both daytime and nighttime.


Introduccion

Throughout the last decade, supporters of the idea of an anthropogenic global warming (AGW) or the impact of an anthropogenic "greenhouse" effect on climate (IAGEC) have been insisting on an erroneous concept of the emission of energy from the atmosphere towards the surface. The AGW-IAGEC assumption states that 50% of the energy absorbed by atmospheric gases, especially carbon dioxide, is reemitted back towards the surface heating it up.

This solitary AGW-IAGEC assumption is fallacious when considered in light of real natural processes. AGW-IAGEC states that if the atmosphere absorbs 240 W/m^2 of energy, 50% of that energy is emitted towards deep space and 50% is emitted back to the surface. However, the proponents of AGW-IAGEC are neglecting other processes which take place in every atmospheric radiative heat transfer event.

On the other hand, since the publication of my article on Heat Stored by Greenhouse Gases, many proponents of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) have pronounced themselves against the science of heat transfer. There are common criticisms made against the theory, even though it is founded on indisputable data derived from scientific research accomplished by scientists from all around the world over the last two centuries.

The algorithms that I use to calculate heat transfer by substances are quite ordinary and basic; you can verify them in any scientific book or article on heat transfer or thermodynamics. AGW proponents who have criticized my paper have resorted to pseudoscientific arguments; for example, that heat is not stored, that the atmosphere is a blackbody, that I have not considered feedbacks, etc. Despite many references demonstrating that the algorithms and results are the uncorrupted product of observations and experimentation, AGW proponents continue trying to confound those readers who have understood that carbon dioxide is an ineffective causative agent of climate change or global warming.

The most frequent counterargument used by AGW proponents against the science of heat transfer is that heat cannot be stored by any system. This argument is admissible in science because heat is energy in transit which is transferred from hot systems to colder systems, so heat cannot be stored by any system. However, as heat is energy and energy can be stored by matter, the energy in transit (heat) consequently can be stored by systems.

A second argument from the AGW side is that carbon dioxide behaves like a blackbody, which is absolutely incorrect because carbon dioxide absorbs but a small amount of the energy in transit and emits only a small amount from the energy stored by the molecules. To be a blackbody, carbon dioxide would have to be able to absorb electromagnetic energy from all frequency bands and all existing wavelengths, which is incongruent with reality.

On the other hand, carbon dioxide has a limited absorbency because its concentration in the atmosphere is excessively low. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the terrestrial atmosphere is 0.00034 atm m, which allows it to exhibit an absorbency-emissivity of 0.002. For example, if the air stores 100 Joules of energy, then carbon dioxide would have absorbed only 0.2 Joules; from this quantity of absorbed energy, carbon dioxide would only emit 0.0004 Joules by radiation. The remaining absorbed energy (0.1996 J) would be transferred by convection, radiation and to a lesser extent by conduction to other systems, or would be stored as potential energy.

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HEAT STORED BY THE AIR, WATER AND DRY CLAY SOIL

Dry air, i.e. air minus water vapor, does not store heat as efficiently as water and dry clay. The following table summarizes the thermal characteristics of the three main systems:

Density (ρ), Heat Capacity (ρC) and Specific Volume (ρV) will be used for this evaluation.

The following formula is used to calculate the heat stored by a system:

Qsto = m (ρV) (ρC) (∆T)

Where Qsto is for energy stored, m is for mass, ρV is for specific volume, ρC is for heat capacity and ∆T is for fluctuation of temperature.

Example 1: What is the load of energy transferred in form of heat which is stored by 1 m^3 of dry air at 300.15 K of temperature (Ti) if its temperature (Tf) increases to 300.95 K in one second?

Known values:

Tf = 300.95 K
Ti = 300.15 K
m = 1.2 Kg
ρV = 0.83 m^3/Kg
ρC = 1200 J/m^3 K
T = 300.95 K - 300.15 K = 0.8 K

Introducing magnitudes:

Qsto = 1.2 Kg (0.83 m^3/Kg) (1200 J/m^3 K) (0.8 K)

Eliminating units:

Qsto = 1.2 Kg (0.83 m^3/Kg) (1200 J/m^3 K) (0.8 K)

Solving the algorithm:

Qsto = 1.2 (0.83) (1200 J) (0.8) = 956.16 J

Testing the result:

What is the effective change of temperature caused by 956.16 J of heat absorbed by the air?

T = Qsto / m (Cp)

Where Qsto is for the amount of energy stored, m is mass and Cp is for specific heat capacity of the substance.

Known values:

m = 1.2 Kg
Qsto = 956.16 J
Cp of air = 1000 J/Kg K

Introducing magnitudes and eliminating units:

T = 956.16 J / 1.2 Kg (1000 J/Kg K)

T = 956.16 / 1.2 (1000 K) = 0.7968 K (rounding up the cipher, ∆T = 0.8 K = 0.8 °C).

The effective fluctuation of temperature caused by 956.16 J of heat absorbed by dry air is 0.8 °C. Approximately 51% of the total amount of the absorbed heat is transformed to potential and kinetic energy, transferred to other volumes of air by convection, and lost to outer space by radiation. This means that, if the temperature of the air is 300.15 K and the mass of air receives 956.16 Joules of radiative energy, the final temperature of the air would be 300.95 K.

Example 2: What is the load of energy transferred in form of heat which is stored by 1 m^3 of water at 300.15 K of temperature (Ti) if its temperature (Tf) increases to 300.95 K in one second?

Known values:

Tf = 300.95 K
Ti = 300.15 K
m = 1000 Kg
ρV = 0.001 m^3/Kg
ρC = 4190 kJ/m^3 K
T = 300.95 K - 300.15 K = 0.8 K

Introducing magnitudes:

Qsto = 1000 Kg (0.001 m^3/Kg) (4190 kJ/m^3 K) (0.8 K)

Eliminating units:

Qsto = 1000 Kg (0.001 m^3/Kg) (4190 kJ/m^3 K) (0.8 K)

Solving the algorithm:

Qsto = 1000 (0.001) (4190000 J) (0.8) = 3.352 x 10^6 J

Testing the result:

T = Qsto / m (Cp)

Known values:

m = 1000 Kg
Cp = 4190 J/Kg K
Qsto = 3352000 J

Introducing magnitudes and eliminating units:

T = 3352000 J / 1000 Kg (4190 J/Kg K) = 0.8 K

Let us try with a volume of dry clay soil when change of temperature is also 0.8 K:

Example 3: What is the load of energy transferred in form of heat which is stored by 1 m^3 of dry clay soil at 300.15 K of temperature (Ti) if its temperature (Tf) increases to 300.95 K in one second?

Known values:

Tf = 300.95 K
Ti = 300.15 K
m = 2000 Kg
ρV = 0.0005 m^3/Kg
ρC = 1780000 J/m^3 K
T = 300.95 K - 300.15 K = 0.8 K

Introducing magnitudes:

Qsto = 2000 Kg (0.0005 m^3/Kg) (1780000 J/m^3 K) (0.8 K)

Eliminating units:

Qsto = 2000 Kg (0.0005 m^3/Kg) (1780000 J/m^3 K) (0.8 K)

Solving the algorithm:

Qsto = 2000 (0.0005) (1780000 J) (0.8) = 1.424 x 10^6 J

From those results, we can see that water and dry clay soil are more efficient to store energy than dry air:

Qsto by Dry Air   =     0956.16 J
Qsto by Water    =3352000.00 J
Qsto by Dry Clay =1424000.00 J

Water and dry clay soil are always in an energy density state higher than air and, consequently, the energy flows from water and ground to air, which is corollary of the second law of thermodynamics.

INDUCED EMISSION

The release or capture of a photon by a molecule of any substance depends on three main processes:

1. Spontaneous Emission, which consists of randomized emission of photons through many trajectories. Spontaneous emission is isotropic (the same intensity in all the trajectories) and an external source of photons is not needed for exciting atoms or molecules into releasing energy, i.e. it can occur in the absence of photon streams. However, it is affected efficiently by Induced Emission and Induced Absorption.

2. Induced Emission, which is the release of photons by an atom or a molecule in a higher energy state in the same direction as the incoming radiation or photon stream, understanding “incoming radiation” as the incident energy on that atom or molecule.

3. Induced Absorption, which happens when part of the incoming radiative intensity is absorbed by an atom or molecule at a lower energy state.

The radiative intensity of the atmosphere of Earth can be calculated by the following formula:

Iav = (1/4π)(((Aul/Bul ))/((((gl Blu)/((gu  * Bul ) ))(e^(hν/kT)- 1) ) )) (Modest. 2003)

Where Iav is for the radiative intensity of the atmosphere, h is for the Planck constant (it has the value 6.626 x 10^-34 J*s), π is ≈3.1416, Aul is for the Einstein coefficient for spontaneous emission, Bul is for the Einstein coefficient for induced emission from high energy states to low energy states, Blu is for the Einstein coefficient for induced emission from low energy states to high energy states, gl denotes degeneracies from low energy states to high energy states, gu denotes degeneracies from high energy states to low energy states, hv is the energy of a photon, k is Boltzmann constant (1.3806503 × 10^-23 J/K), and T is for temperature.

If the emission of photons from the atmosphere happened only by Spontaneous Emission, this emission would have to be far more intense than the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing radiation emitted from the surface, specifically, that the photon emission from the atmosphere would have to be forcibly more intense than the electron stream incoming from the Sun or exiting from the Earth. This is plainly not true in the real world.

Actually, the three processes of heat transfer by radiation have effect in the terrestrial atmosphere where induced absorption and induced emission prevail over spontaneous emission because the intensity of the solar photon stream and the intensity of the surface photon stream are always in higher energy states than the atmosphere photon stream.

Many have alluded to nighttime inversion of radiation, but it is an inappropriate idea taken from planets without oceans. At night, the oceans release photons forming a photon stream which leads to atmospheric induced emission.

There are many scientists who have found errors in the calculations of the proponents of the idea that carbon dioxide is causing planetary warming. The most serious of these errors resides in believing in a downwelling photon stream which, as AGW proponents say, overwhelms the surface emission of radiation and warms the surface during nighttime. However, when we analyze the issue of downwelling radiation emitted by the atmosphere, we find that such warming of the surface by greenhouse gases does not exist.

The problem with the AGW idea is that its proponents think that the Earth is isolated and that the heat engine only works on the surface of the ground. They fail to take into account that incoming heat from the Sun is transferred by conduction from surface to subsurface materials, which store heat until the incidence of direct solar radiation declines, explicitly during nighttime.

At nighttime, the heat stored by the subsurface materials is transferred by conduction towards the surface, which is colder than the unexposed materials below the surface. The heat transferred from the subsurface layers to the surface is then transported by the air by means of convection and warms up. The upwelling photon stream affects the directionality of the radiation emitted by the atmosphere driving it upwards, i.e. towards the upper atmospheric layers and, from there, towards deep space. This process is well described by the next formula:

FSH = -ρ (Cp) (CH) (v (z)) [T (z) – T (0)]

Where FSH is for Sensible Heat Flux, ρ is for density of air, Cp is specific heat capacity of air at constant pressure, CH is the heat transfer coefficient (≈ 0.0013), v (z) is the horizontal wind speed across z, T (z) is the temperature of air at 10 m of altitude, and T (0) is the temperature of the surface.

The “minus” sign means that heat is absorbed by the colder system. For example, the sensible heat flux for a region where the temperature of the surface is 300.15 K, the temperature of air is 293.15 K and the horizontal wind speed is 40 m/s, is 0.443 kJ s/m^2 and the change of temperature caused by this amount of heat stored is 0.3 K (Compare with the result above). A change of temperature of 0.3 K occurs in the air, although the difference of temperature between the surface and the air is relatively high (7 K or 7 °C). In one second, the temperature of the air changes from 293.15 K to 293.45 K.

I want to make clear that this formula applies to both ocean and land heat transfer, although on land it is more appropriate introducing CD instead of CH. However, CDCH ≈ 0.0013.

The sensible heat flux (day and night) is directed upwards, that is, from the surface to the atmosphere  (Peixoto & Oort. 1992. Page 233).

Concluding, atmospheric gases do not cause any warming of the surface given that induced emission prevails over spontaneous emission. During daytime, solar irradiance induces air molecules to emit photons towards the surface; however, the load of Short Wave Radiation (SWR) absorbed by molecules in the atmosphere is exceptionally low, while the load of Long Wave Radiation (LWR) emitted from the surface and absorbed by the atmosphere is high and so leads to an upwelling induced emission of photons which follows the outgoing trajectory of the photon stream, from lower atmospheric layers to higher atmospheric layers, and finally towards outer space. The warming effect (misnamed  “the greenhouse effect") of Earth is due to the oceans, the ground surface and subsurface materials. Atmospheric gases act only as conveyors of heat.

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FURTHER READING

Boyer, Rodney F. Conceptos de Bioquímica. 2000. International Thompson Editores, S. A. de C. V. México, D. F.

Manrique, José Ángel V. Transferencia de Calor. 2002. Oxford University Press. England.

Maoz, Dan. Astrophysics. 2007. Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey.

Modest, Michael F. Radiative Heat Transfer-Second Edition. 2003. Elsevier Science, USA and Academic Press, UK.

Peixoto, José P., Oort, Abraham H. 1992. Physics of Climate. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. New York.

Pitts, Donald and Sissom, Leighton. Heat Transfer. 1998. McGraw-Hill.

Potter, Merle C. and Somerton, Craig W. Thermodynamics for Engineers. Mc Graw-Hill. 1993.

Van Ness, H. C. Understanding Thermodynamics. 1969. McGraw-Hill, New York.

http://www.ipcc.ch/SPM2feb07.pdf (Last reading on 25 August 2007)

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