INTRODUCTION
This article was written by Nasif Nahle © 2004
Why is it so problematic to define life?  First of all, life is not a tangible thing that we could touch or see under a microscope. Being a state of the energy, the life cannot be induced in an inert being. We can not transfer a given configuration of the energy.

When a living being is born, it does not acquire life, but only inherits the ability to assemble structures that set in motion that state of the energy. We can detect the structures that synchronize the configurations of the energy of the living forms and we can also measure the field formed by the interchange of motile charged particles between the environment and the living beings, but we cannot detect something of physical aspect called life, just the effects of a configuration of the energy in the biosystems.

We know where the energy moves to, the density of that energy and the kind of movement of that energy, but we cannot distinguish a molecular structure or a kind of energy called life. Does it mean that life does not exist? No, the only meaning of the last assertions is that life is not a physical thing, but a cluster or series of positions, densities and movements of the energy.

Life is a set of microstates energy that is associated with a delay in the spontaneous dispersion of that energy. The energy of the living beings “leaps” from one state to another, being always controlled by some internal operators of the thermodynamic system. Biologists identify such operators as enzymes. It is the reason because we consider that the transfer of the energy in the living systems is a no-spontaneous coordination of several spontaneous processes. Any system in the Universe that is capable of coordinate the microstates of the energy through no-spontaneous processes is a living being.

The meaning of life that I propose here is based on perceivable and comprehensible physical events explained by means of the scientific Semantics. Life is an observable fact not a hypothesis or an assumption a priori. The deductive hypothetical method is handled on the following way:

OBSERVED NATURAL FACT: For example, we received radiating energy from the Sun.

PROBLEM or QUESTION: For example, how is it generated the energy that we received from Sun?

HYPOTHESIS: For example, "it could be originated from nuclear reactions"

EXPERIMENTATION: For example, since we cannot travel to the Sun and stop on there to analyze its composition in a straight line, we can identify the elements that form the Sun by spectroscopy.

THEORY: We obtain a PRINCIPLE from the collected data. That is, we deduced a theory from the observed facts. Observe that we did not try to verify if the energy is emitted by the Sun, which is an observable natural fact, but the cause of the energy emissions. This also happens with the observation of life. The existence of life is an observable natural fact which we don't need to try experimentally. What we try to know is what is the nature of life (What is life? How it happens?), its characteristics (How the energy available for life is obtained and transferred?) and its origin (How life originated? What activated life in the first living being on Earth?). We tried to answer these questions through experimentation and the scientific hipothetical-deductive method.

We count on observable processes for defining life; for example, photosynthesis, cell Respiration, fermentation, putrefaction, bacterial proton motive force, etc. In addition, we count on the Gibbs’ laws, thoroughly verified, and experimentation on the transference of the energy from the Cosmos to the last function performed into a biosystem. From all these factual phenomena we got a fundamental definition of life.

Since our definition of life is a description of a physical state, it is viable to corrections for doing it more accessible for the non-scientific public, or to enrich its fields of application, but never to modify its fundamental principles.

The difference among my definition of life and other definitions of life is that mine can be tested to verify its level of description and if it matches with facts.

I propose the next trouble-free experimentation to find the truthfulness or falseness of my definition of life:

PART A:

1. TAKE OUT ALL ATP SYNTHASE AND ATP SYNTHASE-LIKE MOLECULES FROM A GROUP OF CELLS.
2. CHECK THE CELLS OUT TO VERIFY IF THEY SURVIVE OR THEY DIE.
3. RECORD THE TIME THAT THE CELLS SURVIVE AFTER THEY HAVE BEEN DEPRIVED FROM ALL THEIR ATP SYNTHASE AND ATP SYNTHASE-LIKE MOLECULES.

PART B:
1. SELECT A GROUP OF CELLS AND REMOVE ALL NUCLEUS DNA FROM THOSE CELLS, BUT PRESERVE ALL THEIR ATP SYNTHASE AND ATP SYNTHASE-LIKE MOLECULES.
2. RECORD THE TIME THAT THOSE CELLS REMAIN ALIVE AFTER THE REMOVAL OF THEIR NUCLEUS DNA.

PART C:

COMPARE THE RECORDED TIME FOR EACH GROUP OF CELLS.

WHICH CELLS SURVIVED THROUGH MORE TIME?

PREDICTION OR HYPOTHESIS: IN SUITABLE CELL CULTURES, THE CELLS DEPRIVED OF THEIR ATP SYNTHASE AND ATP SYNTHASE-LIKE MOLECULES PERHAPS WILL DIE AFTER A FEW MINUTES; WHILE THE CELLS DEPRIVED FROM THEIR DNA PROBABLY WILL SURVIVE FOR MONTHS, AS THE MAMMALS’ ERYTHROCYTES, BUT WITHOUT REPRODUCTIVE AND GENETIC CAPABILITIES.

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DEFINITIONS
This article was written by Nasif Nahle © 2004
Let us start with some definitions:

Biology is the science that studies life and the thermodynamic systems that experience life.

A Thermodynamic System is any amount of matter isolated from the environment by real limits.

A Biosystem is any thermodynamic system experiencing the biotic energy state (life).

The biotic energy state (life) is the convergence of a set of available microstates, at a given moment, that operate limiting the increase of more microstates to which the energy could be spontaneously dispersed or diffused. (Please, read Biotic Field, an antiquackery report)

Let us see a set of useful information:

The notion that biosystems organize themselves is erroneous because it is energy moving in particular trajectories what organizes matter into biosystems, thus, matter cannot organize spontaneously to be alive.

Matter cannot order or organize itself. Each change in matter obeys to a specific position and movement of energy. If energy aligns in this way, matter will be organized as a carbon atom, if energy adopts this another combination of position and movements, matter will be organized as a carbohydrate molecule (or a DNA molecule, or an organelle, or a virus, or a cell or a multicellular being). However, a strict set of microstates determines a cell, or a multicellular being to be alive.

In order to be alive, a thermodynamic system must maintain a quasi-stable set of microstates, so that it can delay the diffusion of the local energy towards more microstates available in the Gravity Field (where all the heat released through the transformations of a kind of energy into another one disperses to).

Important Reminder: Entropy does not refer to order, organization, chaos or driving forces which oblige to a system acquiring a determined thermal behavior. Order, organization and chaos are concepts which are contextual determination of entropy. Entropy refers, objectively, to the quantification of the dispersion or diffusion of the energy en route for more possible and available microstates through variations of the movements and positions of the molecules determined by a previous energy state. (For more information, read: Disorder-A Cracked Crutch for Supporting Entropy Discussions).

Now, let us see the reasons for this assessment on the origins of life:

The largest part of us fell in the same error than the laypeople when we identified life with the set of biochemical processes, and foolishly, even with the same living systems.

We never asked why we never could produce a single living being, even if we placed all the necessary elements to generate a living being, even if we included in our experiments all the physical factors considered as makers of life.

All the known living beings (humans included) hold the thing called life for a short time and then they lose it. As if we were bubbles that are born, grow, generate more bubbles and, finally, are dispelled into the nothingness.

Most excellent of it is that life does not decrease or increase by the size of the creature. By being smaller one does not have less life. This is the greatest experiment on the fact that the life is a physical energy state and not the organism itself. A bacterium is not less alive than a giraffe.

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WHAT IS LIFE?
This article was written by Nasif Nahle © 2004
From direct and indirect observations of the thermal state of the living structures, we can say that:

Life is a delay of the spontaneous diffusion or dispersion of the internal energy of the biomolecules toward more potential microstates.

Life is the transfer of energy by the Proton Motive Force carried out by some specialized molecules called ATP synthases bonded to a biomembrane. Then,  life is a state of the energy experienced by a specific array of organic matter. The most important thing to keep in mind is that, thanks to those oscillations in the electrochemical field of a biomembrane, some thermodynamic systems are able to delay the dispersion of their energy toward more potential microstates.

IMPORTANT NOTE: AN ENERGY CONFIGURATION IS A SET OF PARAMETERS FROM WHICH AN OBSERVER CAN RESTRUCTURE A LIST OF POSITIONS AND MOMENTUMS OF ALL THE PARTICLES THAT CONTAINS A KNOWN THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM. A MICROSTATE IS A SET OF POSITIONS AND MOMENTUMS OF ENERGY THAT COMPRISES A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM. SO THEREFORE, LIFE IS NOT “SOMETHING” ABSTRACT, BUT AN ENERGY STATE (A SET OF POSITIONS AND MOVEMENTS OF THE ENERGY) THAT ORGANIZES MATTER INTO AN ASSEMBLY ABLE OF CAPTURING ENERGY FROM THE ENVIRONMENT FOR DELAYING THE INCREASE OF ITS LOCAL ENTROPY. BY SAYING THAT LIFE IS SOMETHING ABSTRACT IS MERELY PSEUDOSCIENTIFIC PHILOSOPHY. (PLEASE, READ BIOTIC FIELD)

IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT WE STOP A MINUTE TO EXPLAIN SOME CONCEPTS INCLUDED IN MY DEFINITION OF LIFE:

1. DELAY IS NOT REVERSION. MANY AUTHORS SAY THAT LIFE CONSISTS OF INVERTING THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. BUT THAT KIND OF ALLEGATIONS ARE ABSOLUTELY FALSE. THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS REFERS THAT THE ENERGY ALWAYS TRANSFERS FROM A SPACE OR SYSTEM WITH HIGH DENSITIES OF ENERGY TOWARD OTHER SPACES OR SYSTEMS WITH A SMALLER DENSITY OF ENERGY.  THIS IS PRECISELY WHAT OCCURS IN LIFE.  THE UNIVERSE WILL ALWAYS HAVE A HIGHER DENSITY OF ENERGY THAN THAT OF BIOSYSTEMS.  IF IT NOT WERE THUS, LIFE WOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE IN THE UNIVERSE. 

THE CONFUSION SURGES WHEN WE SUBORDINATE TO OUR CONSIDERATION THE PROPERTIES CORRELATED WITH ENTROPY, FOR EXAMPLE, THE ORDER AND COMPLEXITY OF A SYSTEM; HOWEVER, TO BE ORDERED, OR TO BE COMPLEX, THE BIOSYSTEM SHOULD TRANSFER DISORDER TOWARD THE UNIVERSE AND TAKE COMPLEXITY FROM THE UNIVERSE. THUS, THERE IS NOT VIOLATION OR REVERSION OF THE SECOND LAW. WHENEVER THE BIOSYSTEM IS MORE DISORDERED, THE UNIVERSE AND ITS DISORDER WILL BE TRANSFERRED FROM THE MOST DISORDERED SYSTEM TOWARD THE LESS DISORDERED SYSTEM, I.E., TO THE UNIVERSE.

WHAT OCCURS IN THE BIOSYSTEMS IS A DELAY IN THE DIFFUSION OR DISPERSION OF THEIR INTERNAL ENERGY; BUT THAT INTERNAL ENERGY IS NEVER TRANSFERRED FROM A STRUCTURE WITH LOWER DENSITY OF ENERGY TOWARD ANOTHER WITH A HIGHER DENSITY OF ENERGY, WHICH REALLY WOULD BE A VIOLATION TO THE MANIFESTATION OF THE ENTROPY. HOWEVER, NATURE DOES NOT WORK IN THIS WAY.

2. STATE REFERS TO A POSITION, MOVEMENT AND DENSITY OF THE ENERGY TRANSPORTED BY PARTICLES, HERE, OF THOSE PARTICLES THAT DETERMINE THE FUNCTION OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE ENERGY THROUGH INTERVALS OF DEFERRAL OF THE DISPERSION OF THAT ENERGY IN A BIOSYSTEM; FOR EXAMPLE, FERMIONS (PARTICLES WITH AN INTRINSIC ANGULAR MOMENT WHICH  SPIN IS EQUAL TO AN ODD FRACTION (1/2, 3/2, 5/2, ETC.) BY WHICH THOSE PARTICLES SUBMIT TO THE PAULI’S EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE, THAT IS TO SAY THAT THOSE PARTICLES CANNOT OCCUPY THE SAME QUANTUM STATE; FOR EXAMPLE, ELECTRONS, QUARKS, LEPTONS, PROTONS, NEUTRONS, ETC.) AND BOSONS (PARTICLES THAT HAVE AN ENTIRE SPIN [0, 1, 2, 3, ETC.]  BY WHICH THEY DO NOT OBEY THE PAULI’S EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE AND CAN OCCUPY THE SAME QUANTUM STATE; FOR EXAMPLE, PHOTONS, GLUONS, ETC.).

3. QUANTUM ENERGY IS THE SUM OF THE KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A PARTICLE, WHICH CAN BE A FERMION OR A BOSON.

4. DENSITY OF ENERGY IS THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY STORED IN A GIVEN SYSTEM OR IN A SPACE REGION BY UNIT OF VOLUME OR MASS. FOR EXAMPLE, THE LIQUID HYDROGEN STORES AN ENERGY DENSITY OF 120 MJoules/Kg. ONE KILOGRAM OF GLUCOSE STORES 17 MJoules/Kg OF ENERGY (4.01 nutritional Kcal/g).

5. A SPONTANEOUS PROCESS IS A PROCESS IN WHICH THE FREE ENERGY ALWAYS IS DISPERSED TOWARD MORE POTENTIAL MICROSTATES. AS A CONSEQUENCE OF IT, WHEN TALKING ABOUT LIFE, BIOLOGISTS REFER TO A NO-SPONTANEOUS OR AN AUTONOMOUS STATE. THEREFORE, WHEN A SPONTANEOUS PROCESS OCCURS, IT DOES NOT NEED THE INPUT OF ENERGY FROM THE SURROUNDINGS.

6. ENERGY IS UNDERSTOOD AS THE CAPABILITY TO DO JOB. THEREFORE, ENERGY IS A FUNCTION OF THE QUANTIFIABLE PROPERTIES OF ANY GIVEN SYSTEM.

7. THE INTERNAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM IS THE ENERGY ASSOCIATED TO THE MOLECULES MOVEMENT IN A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM, TO BE PRECISE, TO THE TEMPERATURE OF THAT SYSTEM. IN A TRANSFER OF ENERGY, THE INTERNAL ENERGY IS THE ENERGY THAT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE REAL OR IMAGINARY BOUNDARIES OF A SYSTEM. IN A LIVING ORGANISM, CELLS HAS CELL MEMBRANES OR CELL WALLS THAT ARE THE REAL BOUNDARIES OF THE SYSTEM. INTO EACH EUKARYOTE CELL, ORGANELLES -LIKE MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS- HAVE OUTER MEMBRANES THAT CONSTITUTE THE REAL LIMITS OF THOSE THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS.

I HAVE AVOIDED MENTIONING THE WORDS “CHAOTICALLY” AND “RANDOMLY” IN THE DEFINITION OF INTERNAL ENERGY BECAUSE THE MOVEMENTS OF THE MOLECULES ADHERE TO THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS, WHICH ARE MATHEMATICAL NOTIONS OF NATURAL PHENOMENA THAT CAN BE EXPRESSED THROUGH FORMULAE; THEREFORE, THE MOVEMENTS OF THE MOLECULES ARE NOT CHAOTIC NEITHER RANDOMIZED. A MICROSCOPIC VARIATION IN THE INITIAL CONDITIONS CAN RUN A GREAT CHANGE IN THE TRAJECTORIES OF THE PARTICLES.

8. I ALSO ALLUDED TO THE CONCEPT “INTERVAL” IN MY DEFINITION OF LIFE. INTERVAL IS A SUBSET OF STATES SITUATED BETWEEN AN INITIAL AND A FINAL STATE.

9. THE ENERGY IN THE BIOTIC STATE IS SUSCEPTIBLE TO BE QUANTIZED BY STUDYING THE TRAJECTORIES OF FERMIONS AND/OR BOSONS FOR THE DURATION OF TRANSFER AND STORAGE OF ENERGY AT ISOLATED MAIN INTERVALS. FOR EXAMPLE, INVESTIGATING PARTICLES AND WAVE-FUNCTIONS ONE BY ONE:

WHEN WE DEAL WITH PARTICLES THAT ARE THE CONSTITUENTS OF MATTER, WE ONLY CAN STUDY AN INDEPENDENT PARTICLE, POSITION, OR MOVEMENT AT A GIVEN TIME; SIMILARLY, WHEN STUDYING THE PROCESSES OF TRANSFER AND STORAGE OF THE ENERGY WE CAN ONLY ANALYZE A SINGLE FUNCTION AT A GIVEN TIME. WHEN WE COMPLETE THE STUDY OF EACH PARTICLE AND EACH FUNCTION, WE INTEGRATE THE WHOLE TO FORMULATE THE COMPLETE PROCESS; FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN WE STUDY THE PROCESSES OF TRANSQUANTUM THERMAL BIOTRANSFER (CELL RESPIRATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS). (Please, read the page on Biotic Field).

We are close to know how Earth was at their origins, we have a well-structured setting, but when we try to reproduce it experimentally we see that the theory is untrue. The uttermost that we have achieved in our labs has been the recreation of some lifeless structures called protobionts, microspheres or coacervates.

Some Biologists have gone further by destroying a cell and then placing all the cell material into an artificial environment, similar to primitive Earth’s environment; but the results have been always an inert mushy jumble. Others have killed a cell, but preserving the fundamental cell structures. Latter, they have extracted the genetic material from the dead cell and replaced it with the genetic material from a yet living cell... again, the new cell remains dead. Other biologists have destroyed many cells from which the genetic material has been retired, then they have placed all the before-living material into a flask and added the genetic material of living cells from the same species… nothing, not a living cell have risen from this salad. Others have added the whole muddle up into a flask and then have submitted it to high voltage, radiation UV, hot volcanic ash, heat, methane, etc., but there has not even happened the emergence of a living cell.

What does it mean?  Simply, it does mean that life is a factor another than the structure and that life is “something” experienced by very specialized structures that cannot be generated at any laboratory, that life does not appear miraculously nor by miraculous “events” and that life cannot be transferred, induced, or conferred to specialized structures. We clearly see that life is “something” that only can be preserved and continued by those structures that have derived from other living structures (biogenesis).

Now you can see that it is not correct to use the term “life” when referring to living beings. It is clear that, without living beings, life could not be experienced, and vice versa, an organism cannot be alive if it cannot state a set of intervals that delay the flow of its internal entropy. A corpse is an inert being; it is an organic thing and a thermodynamic system, but it is lifeless.

Another thing that we can perceive from the lines above is that life happened in our Solar System as a once incident. We know that life is a thermal state of specialized molecular array. In addition, we know that life holds intimately to the route of time and, consequently, to entropy and irreversibility. This cannot be a miracle, neither a magic performance, but a natural phenomenon. Finally, we know that the life was generated by the confluence of particles in the intersection of two or more collaborating waves in a concrete field of energy. From here, we can infer that life is an energy state of some kind of specialized organic matter (thermodynamic biosystems).

Then, life is an energy state that occurs in specialized molecular structures that obliges these macrostructures to obtain and operate energy from their environment to maintain a maximum state of no-equilibrium transferring available microstates towards their environment, increasing the global number of possible microstates in the Universe.

Life, as a quantum energy state, continues thanks to the replication of the structures that exhibit it. Life is continued, not multiplied. Living beings are what multiply. Life does not evolve, what evolve are the living beings.

The reason for their reluctance to change the semantics of life is that a vast part of scientific documents, almost all the text books and all the reports from Scientific Institutions would have to be modified substantially, as well as the structure of Space Administrations that seek for “life” on other worlds, when actually they are searching for “living beings”. It is just a usual dilemma. Most academics do not want to accept that life is a basic “function” (not a "thing"). They are not ready to give the next step to recognize that they had not "perceived it before”… that life has a scientific explanation.

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ENERGY FIELDS AND BIOSYSTEMS
This article was written by Nasif Nahle © 2004
The meaning of Biotic Field is restricted exclusively to which we already have demonstrated by means of experimentation on the exercise of serious disciplines, like Biophysics and Molecular Cell Biology. The concept is like this:

Biotic Field is an Electrodynamic Field experienced by the biomembranes of prokaryotic cells and the biomembranes of the mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells, which is due to the effects exerted by the fluctuations of the Electromagnetic Field on in-motion electrically charged particles (Electrons, Positrons and Protons) at such biomembranes.

Summarizing the previous concept: Biotic field is an Electrodynamic Field experienced by the biomembranes of prokaryotic cells and by the biomembranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells.

An Electrodynamic Field is any field generated by effects of fluctuations of the Electromagnetic Fields on in-motion charged particles. The term talks about the effects of the fluctuations of the Electromagnetic Fields on the behavior of electrically charged particles.

There are not such furtive particles, like "biotons", implied in the life energy state. If this were the case, then “biotons” would not be another thing but the same photons behaving on an exceptional and unnatural way. Nevertheless, the photons implied in the life energy state do not behave differently from photons implied in all the known natural processes. In addition, no particle implied in the life energy state displays capricious behaviors: No particle implied in the state of life displays an unusual behavior.

The term "field" in Classic Physics means: The exact amount of energy so that some physical processes occur spontaneously, which implies a potential for a physical phenomenon occurs. Also, it is defined as the assignation of a quantity to each point of the space; for example, the exact amount of energy in a point of the gravity field, the amount of energy in a point of the false void, the amount of energy in any point of an electrodynamic field, the density of energy in any of the fields of Higgs, the amount of energy assigned for the ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT in a space of a biomembrane, etc.

The Biotic Field includes the amount, position, and momentum of the energy used by a thermodynamic biosystem when experiencing life. [Momentum is the product of mass and velocity (p=m.v)].

Then, when I talk about the Biotic Field, I allude simply to the exact amount of energy assigned to a given space where life can be experienced by biosystems. Evidently, the biotic field only applies to points in the Universe where living beings can subsist. The subsistence of a biosystem depends on the conditions at that point of the space and on the molecular array of the own biosystem. When we assign an amount of energy for an Electrochemical Gradient to be formed we are applying the concepts of the “Truly New Physics”. Now, we biologists have the benefit that we have not to look for special particles acting on the Biotic Field. Fortunately, Biologists know well what kind of particles are implied in life. Perhaps, in the future we will discover how pions, bosons, Higgs’ particles, and other particles behave in the Biotic Field and we have a complete quantum theory of life; in the meantime, we must adjust ourselves simply to which it has been verified experimentally so far. Biology has been constructed on a basis of strict realism.

In order to be alive, a thermodynamic system must maintain a quasi-stable set of microstates in order that it can delay the diffusion of its local energy towards more available microstates at the Gravity Field (where all the heat released through the transformations from one form of energy into another form disperses to). From this fact, you can distinguish that the Biotic Field exists as a unit different, but not independent, from the Fundamental Fields of nature, on this case, from the Gravity Field. The amount of energy assigned to the Biotic Field is not the same amount assigned to the Electromagnetic Field of a conductor, etc.

Considering all the thermodynamic systems, from Archaeobacteria to the mitochondria and chloroplasts of the eukaryotic cells, the density of the energy available for life, released by the passage of a proton through a specialized biomembrane, varies from 5 to 12 kcal/mol. This amount of energy is enough to produce an electrochemical gradient of 220 mV (0.22 V), which is an Electrodynamic Field, or a Biotic Field, if we consider that it occurs on a living system. One photon carries an amount of energy near to 52 kcal/mol. Chlorophyll makes use of 9.2 kcal/mol per each photon absorbed, which is the amount of energy required for the shift of an electron to one higher level of energy (chlorophyll requires of twelve photons to produce one mole of Glucose). The lasting 42.8 kcal/mol from one photon are released to the environment in the form of thermal energy (heat). On the other hand, the mitochondria require an amount of about 7.4 kcal/mol of energy to start up the electrochemical machinery of life.

By definition, a Biotic Field is an Electrodynamic Field which biomembranes experience. Electrodynamic Field is any field produced by motion charged particles and by changing Electromagnetic Fields. The concept refers to the effects of the fluctuations of the Electromagnetic Field on the behavior of motion electrically-charged particles. There are not living beings where there is not Biotic Field. For example, Mars has the characteristics needed to give support to microorganisms, from the extremophiles variety, which could face temperatures under zero. The problem on Mars resides on both its atmosphere and its soil, which have chemical substances that impede the synthesis of biomolecules, therefore, it is implausible the existence of living beings on Mars. To date, we have not found on Mars the smallest indication on thermodynamic systems that could be linked to the Biotic Field. Ecologists know what I am referring to.

THE AMOUNT OF AVAILABLE ENERGY -ASSIGNED TO A THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE AT A GIVEN TIME- USED BY LIVING BEINGS TO MAINTAIN ITS THERMODYNAMIC AUTONOMY AND CONTAINED BY LIGHT PHOTONS, IS A BIOTIC FIELD. THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE INTERNAL ENERGY IN THE BIOSYSTEMS WAS DEDUCED THANKS TO THE QUANTUM PHYSICS, IT WAS CALCULATED BY MEANS OF GIBBS’ EQUATIONS, MOLDED THROUGH THE GIBBS’ LAW AND EXPERIMENTALLY DEMONSTRATED BY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY.

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WHAT MAKES US TO BE ALIVE? 
This article was written by Nasif Nahle © 2004
At the origin of life, a cloud of particles generated by our Sun elapsed through an electromagnetic hole and each particle was reemitted toward an assembly of waves in their point of cooperation. The particles so attracted collided with all types of matter previously ordered by the electromagnetic force through all the Solar System. The collision between wave-particles and the ordinary matter provoked different macrostates in correspondence with the nature of the molecular arrangement of ordinary matter.

Some arrangements of matter constituted thermodynamic systems which macrostates did not permit that the energy state were maintained by themselves. This condition limited the property of those systems to escape from the real increase in the number of their available microstates, acquiring spontaneously a thermal state of equilibrium.

Another specific organization of matter had a macrostate in which the energy fluctuation could be maintained because that system owned multiple inner structures that favored, sequentially, the acquisition of photons that held transitorily the continuum of the primary energy fluctuation.

This class of thermodynamic system, determined by the electromagnetic field, acquired the capability of delaying the increment of microstates that would take it to a thermal state of equilibrium (succession of intervals in the spontaneous flow of thermal equilibrium). Consequently, the energy state prompted that thermodynamic system to capture photons for retarding temporarily the spontaneous increment of local entropy inherent to that system, increasing with it the global entropy of the Universe.

It is that energy fluctuation what makes us to be alive. As long as living beings have the capacity of capturing photons that are able of being reemitted toward the harmonic points of their corresponding waves, we will be alive.

At the moment in which we were unable to retain that capacity, life in us will stop, that is to say, the energy state will jump from the living matter toward another not quantity of energy needed for life of energy. The latter would not be possible if the energy state were not subject to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, therefore, upon dying the biosystem, its biotic energy state will jump from a field of high density toward another low density field, where -by the position and the nature of movements of the kinetic energy- it would no longer prompt to other systems to set intervals in the ordinary flow of thermal equilibrium.

Some people have dared me to define life without relating it to weird "energy states". Well, this is an easier task than to relate it to an energy state. Here it goes:

Life is the energy state in some thermodynamic systems that compels them to establish a stable succession of no-spontaneous intervals in the trajectory of diffusion or dispersion of energy.

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TO LIVE OR NOT TO LIVE: THAT WAS THE QUESTION
This article was written by Nasif Nahle © 2004
The living thermodynamic systems maintain a cuasi-stable amount of microstates that had to be increased spontaneously (change of entropy), temporarily expanding the increase of their local entropy. Nonliving thermodynamic systems also can maintain a limited number of available microsystems. Nevertheless, in nonliving thermodynamic systems there are not internal operators that carry out this action, whereas the living systems have a series of processes in cascade that operate from their internal system and maintain their quantum energy state within a thermal no equilibrium. Let's determine if viruses and Erythrocytes are living beings or not:

VIRUSES

For example, viruses. Viruses are microscopic particles formed by a chain of DNA or of RNA, wrapped by a capsule made of proteins or lipoproteins.

Viruses lack of a cytosol, organelles, autonomous movements, they do not eat, nor sleep, not carry out active exchanges of energy with the environment, neither they carry out metabolic processes; they only reproduce themselves and evolve under extremely concrete conditions. These extremely concrete conditions occur only when the viruses invade a living cell. If they are not in contact with living cells, they cannot reproduce themselves, neither evolve. Are viruses living beings or not?

No, viruses are not living beings, but organized particles that can reproduce themselves only when are connected with a living being. Viruses possess a genetic material with all the information necessary to produce complete copies of them, but they can do this only when they are in contact with living species. Otherwise, they cannot reproduce themselves or evolve.

From here, we pertinently conclude that neither the DNA, neither RNA, neither proteins are life because if it were so, then viruses would be alive also when they were not invading a living organism. (Please, read Biotic Field)

ERYTHROCYTES

Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, are corpuscular elements of chordates’ blood. The main function of erythrocytes is to contain a protein that transports Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide called Hemoglobin.

The erythrocytes of mammalians cannot reproduce themselves, they do not carry out other metabolic processes and they do not contain genetic materials (neither DNA neither RNA). Erythrocytes are produced from cells of the marrow called Myeloblasts, which lost their genetic material when they reach a youthful step called Normoblast.

The life of an erythrocyte fluctuates between 90 and 120 days and they should be destroyed when get old by phagocytes named reticuloendothelial cells.

The cell membrane of the erythrocytes does not differ of the cell membranes of other types of cells, but its cytosol has gelatinous consistency. Are erythrocytes living cells or not?

It cannot die what already is dead. Erythrocytes are alive after they have lost their genetic material and many of their organelles. Erythrocytes die four months after they suffer the loss of their genetic material. Then, life is not the organization of the organelles, neither any of the molecules with the ability of reproducing themselves.

Yes, erythrocytes are living cells; therefore, differing from what we thought some years ago, erythrocytes experience also the process of programmed cell death, better known as apoptosis. Then yes, it is unexpected that a cell without the so-called molecules of life can live through almost four months.

CONCLUSION:

From the previous examples, we infer that life does not reside neither in DNA and RNA molecules, nor in autocatalytic proteins, but that life is experienced by biomembranes.

From the previous examples, we infer that life is not the organization of the system. Erythrocytes do not have a complex cell organization as other cells of the organism have; however, erythrocytes are alive. This obeys to the preservation of their cell membranes. Hence, it is evident that life is an energy state experienced by biomembranes.

It is also evident that the molecules of nucleic acids are not living molecules, although they have the fundamental function of reproduction of the biosystems, the transmission of characteristics from a biosystem to its progeny and the control of the metabolic processes in biosystems.

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This arti

ATP Synthase the Motor of Life

When we talk about the macroscopic world, we define the term structure from an anatomical, histological and morphological viewpoint. However, we often ignore the fact that we have to make a qualitative jump in the progression from macrophysical systems to microphysical systems.

When we investigate the system as a whole, we must not limit our knowledge simply to macrophysical parameters which can be measured, as length, distance, volume, etc., but to effective parameters which are further related with electric charges, electromagnetic fields, quantum energy and electrodynamic phenomena.

We set in motion a picture of a macrophysical system, i.e. a plant. We can describe its height, its volume, its weight, the quantity of leaves it has, its color, etc.; however, as we move our observations towards smaller and smaller portions of the macroscopic structure, we arrive at a point at which the macrophysical qualities leap into another realm where the parameters with which we previously classified the living organism no longer have any utility. Of course, the transition is so subtle that many of us succumb to the idea that there is no more physical explanation to describe life.

If we understand that there is no boundary, but rather a continuum which links every process in every living system with the Universe, we will not be so easily fooled by the illusion of a separation between the macrophysical world and the microphysical world.

After reading this explanation, see an Animation of how ATP Synthase works:






PROTON MOTIVE FORCE (PMF), THE TRACK OF LIFE

One of the most serious difficulties that we have faced in the search of living beings out of Earth has been the recognition of living beings similar to terrestrial organisms. Given that the Physical Laws are the same everywhere in the known Universe, and that all the matter contained by the known Universe is formed by the same particles, we can assume precise methods for the unmistakable recognition of non terrestrial living forms.

To be sure that anything found on other planets is or not a living being, we could try to detect the Proton Motive Force (PMF). PMF is a sequence of alterations in the membrane potential that happen across the transference of energy, since it is captured until it is stored in a complex molecule, for example, a molecule of Glucose. PMF occurs when electrons are transported by ATP molecules impelling to the protons to leap towards the membranes’ outer surface of some cell organelles, as chloroplasts or mitochondria, or towards the outer surface of the cell membranes in bacteria.

After some of my conferences on Exobiology, some persons have asked for a plausible method for detecting the Proton Motive Force.

One of the easiest forms to recognize living beings on extraterrestrial environments would reside on the detection of Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP), Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP), Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP), or NADPH by means of ultra-finely tuned photometers built-in the robotic probes exploring planetary soils. It would be obvious that any system possessing those complex compounds would experience the PMF, and consequently, that system would be alive.

Another way, still simpler than the previous one, would be by producing bubbles of Oxygen in a viscous cell culture media which had been enriched with soil of the explored planet. If that soil were the habitat of aerobic bacteria, then these would accumulate around the bubbles of Oxygen, which we could monitor by means of a strategic and exhaustive microscopic observation.

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This article was written by Nasif Nahle © 2004


DISSIPATIVE SYSTEMS

The dissipative thermodynamic systems are systems in a state of no-equilibrium related to the phenomenon of a spontaneous emergence.

In this sense, organisms are dissipative thermodynamic systems, the same as crystals, hurricanes, solar spots, the red spot of Jupiter, chemical reaction clocks, etc.

The dissipative thermodynamic structures are thermodynamic systems in a state of thermodynamic non-equilibrium in which the instabilities can generate a coherent global behavior, whenever certain parameters be maintained into the critical limits.

However, the energy fluctuation experimented by the dissipative inert thermodynamic systems is not the same energy fluctuation experimented by the dissipative living thermodynamic structures.

Where do we see the difference? The difference resides in the format used by the dissipative thermodynamic systems for establishing a series of intervals that block the increase of their local entropy. While inert dissipative thermodynamic systems do it spontaneously, the living dissipative thermodynamic systems do it autonomously.

Another difference is that, although the input of energy is spontaneous for both classes of dissipative thermodynamic systems, in inert dissipative thermodynamic systems it does not take place a non-spontaneous post-manipulation of the energy, while in the living dissipative thermodynamic systems occurs a specific directionality in the transference of the energy which permits that the energy be used for the preservation of a pattern system from which more pattern systems will be generated. Like this, the living dissipative thermodynamic systems give continuity to the energy state that permits them to block temporarily the diffusion or dispersion of their internal energy.

However, some inert dissipative thermodynamic systems can grow, even other systems can grow and self-replicate, as if they were living dissipative thermodynamic systems. We say that the inert self-replicating dissipative thermodynamic systems experiment a simple self-replicating pattern, while the living dissipative thermodynamic systems experiment a complex self-replicating pattern.

From here, we could think that we would be able to differentiate, with a higher precision, a living dissipative thermodynamic system from an inert dissipative thermodynamic system. Then again, complex self-replication pattern can occur in inert self-replicating templates, for example in prions, viruses, autocatalytic proteins and ribozymes, and all of these structures cannot be considered as living dissipative thermodynamic systems because the post-manipulation of the energy for self-replication occurs spontaneously, not autonomously as it occurs in living dissipative thermodynamic systems.

Subsequently, we conclude that the unique demonstrable difference between living dissipative thermodynamic systems and inert dissipative thermodynamic systems is the autonomy or the non-spontaneity in the directional post-manipulation of the energy -which is captured spontaneously by both kinds of dissipative thermodynamic systems- experimented only by the living self-replicating thermodynamic systems.ge was created by Nasif Nahle, Biologis
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REFERENCES

Daniela Stock, Andrew G. W. Leslie, John E. Walker. Molecular Architecture of the Rotary Motor in ATP Synthase. Science: 26 November 1999: Vol. 286. No. 5445, pp. 1700 – 1705.

Lang, F., Gulbins, E., Szabo, I., Lepple-Wienhues, A., Huber, S. M., Duranton, C., Lang, K. S., Lang, P. A., Wieder, T. Cell volume and the regulation of apoptotic cell death. J Mol Recognit. 2004 Sep-Oct;17(5):473-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Lodish, H., Berk, Arnold, et al; Molecular Cell Biology; pp. 617. W. H. Freeman and Company; 1999, New York, New York.

Medne, Livija. The UBE3A Gene and its Role in Angelman Syndrome. April 2000; http://www.asclepius.com/angel/ube3a.htm. Philadelphia, PA.

Melanie Walsh, Robert J. Lutz, Thomas G. Cotter, and Rosemary O'Connor. Erythrocyte survival is promoted by plasma and suppressed by a Bak-derived BH3 peptide that interacts with membrane-associated Bcl-XL. Blood. 1 May 2002, Vol. 99, No. 9, pp. 3439-3448. Department of Biochemistry and Biosciences Research Institute, National University of Ireland, Cork; and Immunogen Inc, Cambridge, MA.

Moreno, Alvaro. Closure, Identity, and the Emergence of Formal Causation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 901; pps. 112-121. New York, NY. 2000.

Nakano, Toru, Kodama, Hiroaki, Honjo, Tasuku. In Vitro Development of Primitive and Definitive Erythrocytes from Different Precursors. Science, Vol 272, Issue 5262, 722-724 , 3 May 1996.

Nahle, Nasif. Conference: Compilation of New Data from Quantum Physics and Cosmology and its Application for Supporting the Theory of Abiogenesis. http://www.biocab.org/Abiogenesis_1.html. November 10, 2003; New Braunfels TX.

Ham, Arthur W. Histology. J. B. Lippincott Company. 1974. New York, NY.

Ham, Arthur W., Axelrad, Arthur A.,  Cormack, David H. Blood Cell Formation and the Cellular Basis of Immune Responses. 1979. Lippincott Company. New York, NY.

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LIFE
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By Nasif Nahle, Biologist. September 1st, 2004 (my birthday).
Úpdated on February 6th, 2009 (We only added an animation on ATP Synthase)

Additional editing of this English text by TS

INTRODUCTIONMEANINGSWHAT IS LIFE?BIOSYSTEMS

WHAT MAKES US TO BE ALIVE?TO LIVE OR NOT TO LIVEPROTON MOTIVE FORCE

DISSIPATIVE SYSTEMSREFERENCESARE VIRUSES LIVING BEINGS? (Another page)

RECOMMENDED READINGS ON HUMAN THERMODYNAMICS

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Nahle, N. (1999).  Life.  Biology Cabinet. New Braunfels, TX. Obtained on (month) (day), (year) from http://biocab.org/Life.html.

"Quantum theory unveils a new level of reality, the world of intrinsic uncertainty, a world of possibilities, which is totally absent in classical physics. And this bizarre world of quantum physics not only offers us the most compelling explanation of physical phenomena presently known, but is also one of the most prolific source of modern technologies, providing society with a cornucopia of devices and instruments". (Drakos & Ross)
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ATP_Synthase_Animation.mov
ATP_Synthase_Animation.mov