Monosaccharides are carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolized to obtain smaller molecules of carbohydrate.

GLUCOSE

Glucose is a well-known monosaccharide. 

The condensed formula of Glucose is:

C6H12O6

This means that the molecule of Glucose is built by 6 atoms of Carbon, 12 atoms of Hydrogen and 6 atoms of Oxygen.

This is better understood in the diagram of the open-chain linear structure of glucose:

            H   OH  H    H    H
             |       |     |      |      |
H - C - C -  C - C -  C - C - H
      | |    |       |     |      |      |
      O   OH  H  OH OH OH

A diagram of the ring shape of Glucose is:
BACK TO TOP^^

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

FRUCTOSE

Fructose is known popularly as fruit's sugar. The ring structure of Fructose is as follows:
BACK TO TOP^^

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

RIBOSE AND DEOXYRIBOSE

Two very important Monosaccharides are Ribose and Deoxyribose. Ribose is used for the construction of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA), and Deoxyribose to build Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). The ring structure diagram for each molecule is as follows:
GLUCOSEFRUCTOSERIBOSE AND DEOXYIBOSEGALACTOSEDISACCHARIDESPOLYSACCHARIDES

< BIOLOGYINDEXABOUT USE-MAIL US
BACK TO TOP^^

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

GALACTOSE

Galactose is very similar to Glucose, except by the orientation of the radical -OH in the fourth Carbone.
Galactose and Glucose joins to form Lactose, a Disaccharide contained in milk.
®
®
®
MONOSACCHARIDES
Website created and kept up by Nasif Nahle et al.
Copyright© 1997 by Biology Cabinet Organization
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
< BIOLOGYINDEXABOUT USE-MAIL US
BACK TO TOP^^
To quote this article copy the next two lines:

Nahle, N. 2003. Monosaccharides. Biology Cabinet. http://www.biocab.org/Monosaccharides.html.