SOPHISMS IN BIOLOGY
By Nasif Nahle, Biologist.
Graduated in Biological Doctrines (1975).
This page has been published on June 1, 2006.

Sophism is any false argument that pretends to have been obtained by means of systematic methodology.

The starting point of sophisms is a kind of falsification called fallacy (plural: fallacies).

A fallacy is any statement, notion, belief, reasoning or argument based on a false, erroneous or invalid deduction.

Examples of sophisms on Biology:

Premise 1. Human beings are the unique animals able to alter their environment.

Premise 2. The environment is part of the nature.

Premise 3. Nature exhibits alterations that threaten of massive extinction of species.

Conclusion: Human beings are responsible for the massive extinctions of species.

The sophism in the last paragraphs presents the next inconsistencies:

On premise 1: This premise is a fallacy because it indicates that human beings are the unique animals capable to alter their environment; however, all the living beings -including plants- are able to alter nature.

On premise 2. It is correct that the environment is part of the nature.

On premise 3: This premise is a fallacy because it assures that the nature presents alterations that threaten of massive extinction of species; however, the same alterations promote an evolution towards the emergence of new species.

Another mistake in premise 3 is that it generalizes when it assures that the nature’s alterations threaten with the extinction of many species, being that the greater part of the alterations in nature does not constitute a real threat for the species.

The paleontology record clearly shows that the massive extinctions of living beings have been given for spontaneous and swift alterations in nature.

Conclusion: It is a fallacy because it is a mistake to think that every change in nature is forced by human beings. The largest changes that provoke massive extinctions of species are spontaneous and cyclic events that obey to the normal dynamics of all planets.

Another sophism on Biology:

Premise 1. The Biology is the study of life.

Premise 2. Life is an indefinable formal concept by the way of thinking of factual sciences.

Conclusion: Then, Biology is not a factual science, but a formal science.

Inconsistencies of the previous sophism:

Premise 1. To some extent, it is acceptable because biologists have defined Biology like the study of life.

Premise 2. It is a fallacy because the concept Life is definable; besides it is reducible through the Physics of Particles and Thermodynamics.

Conclusion: The conclusion is a fallacy because the Biology is not an ideological science based on simple reasoning, but it is a natural science based on observable facts.

Another sophism on Biology:

Premise 1. Faith is the belief in something that cannot be observed or shown experimentally in the real world.

Premise 2. Evolution bases its evidence in the systematization of the fossil catalog to construct theories.

Premise 3. The fossil record (or catalog) presents extensive interruptions that scientists fulfill with their own conjectures.

Conclusion: Evolution is not science, but faith on science.

Inconsistencies of the sophism in the last paragraph:

Premise 1. The definition of faith is correct.

Premise 2. It is a fallacy because Evolutionists do not found their theories on the systematization of the fossil catalog, but on the observation of current evolutionary events. The fossil record functions to repair the history of life through the ages at which our planet has evolved.

Premise 3. It is a fallacy because the conjectures (hypothesis) only can be qualified like theories if they are based on observable analogous guidelines of fossils. The hypotheses that are rejected are those that are not compatible with those observable analogous guidelines.

Conclusion: The conclusion is a fallacy because the evolution is not a religion which beliefs should be based on faith. Evolution is an interdisciplinary branch of biological sciences based on the observation of authentic natural phenomena.

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