®
®
®
Copyright© 2006 by Biology Cabinet Organization
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
HOMEABOUT USCONTACTESTA PÁGINA EN ESPAÑOL
TROPOSPHERIC Δ T AND SOLAR RADIATION
Google
 
Web www.biocab.org
HOMEABOUT USCONTACTESTA PÁGINA EN ESPAÑOL
Credit: NASA/MSFC/HATHAWAY/NOAA. Kerr, Richard A. The Sun's Churning Innards Foretell More Solar Storms. Science. Vol. 311, No. 5766, p. 1357. 10 March 2006. Comparison and Interpretation: Nasif Nahle, Biologist.

CLICK ON THE GRAPH TO SEE A LARGER IMAGE
EXPLANATION OF THE GRAPH: Scientists of NASA have discovered a positive trend in the intensity of the solar activity since 1980. The factor of variability is about 0.06 flares per year. The latter is similar to the annual variability of the tropospheric temperature on Earth, which has been 0.05 per year. In the graph, the green sharp line represents the number of solar flares per day, the blue line represents the variability in the tropospheric temperature on Earth, the dashed green straight line corresponds to the average of the tendency in the variability of solar irradiance per decade, and the blue dashed straight line denotes the median of the decadal tendency of the variability in the tropospheric temperature of Earth.

I have noticed that the trend in the fluctuations of the solar activity and the trend in the variability of the tropospheric temperature on Earth are almost parallel one to another. Simultaneously, both trends are separated by an equalized interval. I think that the steadiness of the difference between the two trends corresponds to a difference between the Intensity of Solar Irradiance and the Tropospheric Temperature (0.06 - 0.05 = 0.01).

It is evident that the equivalences between the variability of the tropospheric Temperature and the variability of the solar irradiance are directly related with the intensity of the incoming Solar Radiation. The latter includes all forms of radiation emitted by the Sun, for example, Infrared Radiation (Heat), light, UV radiation, X rays, gamma rays, etc. At present, we are experiencing a larger solar cycle (lasting about 100 years) that includes 10 cycles of 11 years each.

In the graphic of the Geological Eras we can observe large fluctuations in the global temperature of Earth through millions of years. I do not know the point that the current tropospheric temperature fluctuations will reach, perhaps the fluctuations will stretch to standards similar or higher than the maximum values of precedent fluctuations, but I am not sure about that.

NASA scientists elaborated a prediction about the next solar cycle of 11 years based on the observation of the past tendencies and on the direct influence that the previous cycles have had on the intensity of the following  cycle. The intensity of the solar activity has been progressively increasing on every cycle.

The implementation of the Kyoto’s Protocol will not solve the phenomenon of global warming; in the first place, because it does not depend absolutely of the human activities, but from natural factors. In the second place, because the concentration of Heat-Forcing gases in the atmosphere are not thermodynamically capable of store the density of heat registered in the last century. The variability in the tropospheric temperature on Earth depends on cosmic factors, like the increase in the intensity of Solar Radiation and of Intergalactic Cosmic Rays.

The graph gives also a clear explanation about the global warming observed on other planets like Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and some satellites of giant planets.

I HAVE BASED MY GRAPH ON ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC DATA SO FOR THE DRAWING AS FOR ITS INTERPRETATION. I EXTENSIVELY RECOMMEND YOU TO READ THE REPORT AT NASA'S SITE AND THE ARTICLE FROM SCIENCE MAGAZINE THAT I HAVE INCLUDED LIKE REFERENCES AT THE FOOT OF THE DIAGRAM.

Author of this page: Nasif Nahle, biologist

TOP OF PAGE ^^

SOLAR FLARES AND TROPOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE

THE SUN

BIBLIOGRAPHY

TO QUOTE THIS ARTICLE COPY AND PASTE:

Nahle, N. (2006).  Temperature and Solar Radiation.  Biology Cabinet. New Braunfels, TX. Obtained on (month) (day), (year) from http://biocab.org/Temperature_and_Solar_Radiation.html.
LEFT CLICK ON THE MODEL TO SEE AN ENHANCED IMAGE

THE SUN

Where the energy that warms up and illuminates to our planet is produced? The obvious answer is that most of the light and heat come from the Sun; nevertheless, not all the regions of the Sun produce the energy that gives support to the living beings on Earth. The heat (infrared radiation) and the light, in addition to Gamma radiation, X radiation, ultraviolet radiation and an enormous amount of subatomic particles, are released from the core of our star.

The core of the Sun is composed mainly by Hydrogen nuclei (protons), which fuse one to another to form nuclei of deuterium (one proton and one neutron) and tritium (one proton and two neutrons), which are isotopes of Hydrogen, and Helium nuclei (each one is formed by two protons and one neutron) by means of nuclear fusion.

Every time that a thermonuclear reaction happens in the core of the Sun, a great amount of electromagnetic energy is released and emitted from the solar core. This energy goes across the solar layer called radiative zone, then the energy goes through the zone of convection and finally is dispersed out from the star, towards the sidereal space. This energy released from the core of the Sun travels at 186,411.36 mi per second and it is constituted by waves and particles (photons).

The energy released by the thermonuclear reactions departs from the Sun in form of infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation and visible light. These are the main kinds of electromagnetic energy that reach, in greater or smaller proportion, to all the planets of the Solar System.

When the Sun displays a greater number of flares, the thermonuclear activity in its interior is more intense. The flares are gas jets that usually are associated with sunspots. For that reason, the scientists suppose that the Earth receives a more radiating energy when there are more sunspots on the surface of the Sun.

However, the energy incoming to Earth is more intense when the Sun emits larger amounts of radiative energy from its core and produces gigantic flares not associated with sunspots. For example, in 1998 there were 87 X-Type flares when the number of sunspots was in a low level (see the graph here). That year, the tropospheric temperature fluctuated by 0.52 °C, over the standard temperature. To date, 1998 has been the warmest year of the preceding 200 years.

Author of this page: Nasif Nahle, biologist

TOP OF PAGE ^^



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bakken, G. S., Gates, D. M., Strunk, Thomas H. and Kleiber, Max. Linearized Heat Transfer Relations in Biology. Science. Vol. 183; pp. 976-978. 8 March 1974.

Ingo C. F. Müller-Wodarg. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Exploring Other Worlds to Learn More About Our Own. Science 2 June 2006; Vol. 312. No. 5778, pp. 1319 – 1320.

Jeffrey M. Forbes, Sean Bruinsma, Frank G. Lemoine. Solar Rotation Effects on the Thermospheres of Mars and Earth. Science 2 June 2006; Vol. 312. No. 5778, pp. 1366 – 1368.

McGrew, Jay L. , Bamford, Frank L and Thomas R. Rehm. Marangoni Flow: An Additional Mechanism in Boiling Heat Transfer. Science. Vol. 153. No. 3740; pp. 1106 - 1107. 2 September 1966.

Potter, Merle C. and Somerton, Craig W. Thermodynamics for Engineers. Mc Graw-Hill. 1993.

Wilson, Jerry D. College Physics-2nd Edition; Prentice Hall Inc. 1994.

TOP OF PAGE ^^